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Zambia Flag

Capital City: Lusaka

Border countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe

Internet Links

Official Sites of Zambia
The Republic of Zambia - State House

The Republic of Zambia - State Information Centre

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Political Map of Zambia



Background:  The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by
the South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the
UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred
development and immigration.  The name was changed to Zambia upon
independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices
and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought
an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant
harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by
administrative problems with at least two parties filing legal petitions
challenging the results. Opposition parties currently hold a majority
of seats in the National Assembly.

Geography Zambia

Location:  Southern Africa, east of Angola

Geographic coordinates:  15 00 S, 30 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 752,614 sq km water: 11,890 sq km land: 740,724 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries:  total: 5,664 km border countries: Angola 1,110 km,
Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique
419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zimbabwe 797 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

Terrain:  mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m highest point:
unnamed location in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m

Natural resources:  copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold,
silver, uranium, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 7% permanent crops: 0% other: 93% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  460 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  tropical storms (November to April)

Environment - current issues:  air pollution and resulting acid rain
in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into
watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope,
and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification;
lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed,
but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:  landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine
boundary with Zimbabwe

People Zambia

Population:  9,959,037 note: estimates for this country explicitly take
into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result
in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population
by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 47.1% (male 2,357,581; female 2,335,644)
15-64 years: 50.4% (male 2,497,360; female 2,519,227) 65 years and over:
2.5% (male 106,160; female 143,065) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.9% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  41.01 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  21.89 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.74 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  89.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   37.66 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  5.43 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  19.95% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  870,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  99,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Zambian(s) adjective: Zambian

Ethnic groups:  African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%

Religions:  Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous
beliefs 1%

Languages:  English (official), major vernaculars - Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi,
Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and about 70 other indigenous languages

Literacy:   age 15 and over can read and write English total population:
Government Zambia

Country name:   Republic of Zambia conventional short form: Government
type:  republic

Capital:  Lusaka

Administrative divisions:  9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern,
Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

Independence:  24 October 1964 (from UK)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

Constitution:  2 August 1991

Legal system:  based on English common law and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Levy MWANAWASA (since
2 January 2002); Vice President Enoch KAVINDELE (since 4 May 2001);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Levy MWANAWASA (since 2 January 2002); Vice
President Enoch KAVINDELE (since 4 May 2001); note - the president is both
the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by
the president from among the members of the National Assembly elections:
president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last
held 27 December 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); vice president appointed
by the president election results: Levy MWANAWASA elected president;
percent of vote - Levy MWANAWASA 29%, Anderson MAZOKA 27%, Christon
TEMBO 13%, Tilyenji KAUNDA 10%, Godfrey MIYANDA 8%, Benjamin MWILA 5%,
Michael SATA 3%

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; members
are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last
held 27 December 2001 (next to be held NA 2006) election results: percent
of vote by party - MMD 45.9%, UPND 32.4%, UNIP 8.8%, FDD 8.1%, HP 2.7%,
PF 0.7%, ZRP 0.7%, independents 0.7%; seats by party - MMD 68, UPND 48,
UNIP 13, FDD 12, HP 4, PF 1, ZRP 1, independents 1; seats not determined 2

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (the final court of appeal; justices are
appointed by the president); High Court (has unlimited jurisdiction to
hear civil and criminal cases)

Political parties and leaders:  Agenda for Zambia or AZ [Inonge
MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA]; Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Christon
TEMBO]; Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]; Liberal Progressive Front
or LPF [Roger CHONGWE, president]; Movement for Multiparty Democracy
or MMD [Frederick CHILUBA, president]; National Citizens Coalition
or NCC [Nevers MUMBA, president]; National Leadership for Development
or NLD [Yobert SHAMAPANDE]; National Party or NP [Dr. Sam CHIPUNGU];
Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA]; Zambian Republican Party or ZRP
[Benjamin MWILA]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Gwendoline Konie];
United National Independence Party or UNIP [Francis NKHOMA, president];
United Party for National Development or UPND [Anderson MAZOKA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Atan
SHANSONGA FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826 telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through
9719 chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
David B. DUNN embassy: corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues
mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka telephone: [260] (1) 250-955 FAX:
[260] (1) 252-225

Flag description:  green with a panel of three vertical bands of red
(hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the
outer edge of the flag

Economy Zambia

Economy - overview:  Despite progress in privatization and budgetary
reform, Zambia's economy has a long way to go. Privatization of
government-owned copper mines relieved the government from covering
mammoth losses generated by the industry and greatly improved the
chances for copper mining to return to profitability and spur economic
growth. However, low mineral prices have slowed the benefits from
privatizing the mines and reduced incentives for further private
investment in the sector. In late 2000, Zambia was determined to be
eligible for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
(HIPC) initiative, but Zambia has not yet finalized its Poverty Reduction
Strategy paper.  Unemployment rates remain high, but GDP growth should
continue at about 4%. Inflation should remain close to 20%.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $8.5 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3.9% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $870 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 24% industry: 25% services:
51% (2000)

Population below poverty line:  86% (1993 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 1.1%
highest 10%: 41% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  52.6 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  21.5% (2001)

Labor force:  3.4 million

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 85%, industry 6%, services 9%

Unemployment rate:  50% (2000 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $1.2 billion expenditures: $1.25 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs,
beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture

Industrial production growth rate:  5.1% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  7.822 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 0.51% hydro: 99.49%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  5.838 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  1.536 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  100 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seed,
vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca);
cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides; coffee

Exports:  $876 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  copper 55%, cobalt, electricity, tobacco,
flowers, cotton

Exports - partners:  UK 25.2%, South Africa 24.5%, Switzerland 9.4%,
Malawi 7.5% (2000)

Imports:  $12.05 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum
products, electricity, fertilizer; foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - partners:  South Africa 67.1%, UK 9.8%, Zimbabwe 7.5%, US 5.9%

Debt - external:  $5.8 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  $651 million (2000 est.)

Currency:  Zambian kwacha (ZMK)

Currency code:  ZMK

Exchange rates:  Zambian kwacha per US dollar - 3,848.65 (January 2002),
3,610.94 (2001), 3,110.84 (2000), 2,388.02 (1999), 1,862.07 (1998),
1,314.50 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Zambia

Telephones - main lines in use:  130,000 (including more than 40,000
fixed telephones in wireless local loop connections) (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  75,000 (2001)

Telephone system:  general assessment: facilities are aging but still
among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa domestic: high-capacity microwave
radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular
telephone services in operation; Internet service is widely available;
very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private
firms international:  Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 19, FM 5, shortwave 4 (2001)

Radios:  1.2 million (2001)

Television broadcast stations:  9 (2002)

Televisions:  277,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .zm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  5 (2001)

Internet users:  15,000 (2000)

Transportation Zambia

Railways:  total: 2,157 km narrow gauge: 2,157 km 1.067-m gauge (13 km
double-track) note: the total includes 891 km of the Tanzania-Zambia
Railway Authority (TAZARA), which operates 1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow
gauge track between Dar es Salaam and Kapiri Mposhi where it connects to
the Zambia Railways system; TAZARA is not a part of the Zambia Railways
system; Zambia Railways assets are scheduled for concessioning (2002)

Highways:  total: 66,781 km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km (1997 est.)

Waterways:  2,250 km note: includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and
Luapula rivers

Pipelines:  crude oil 1,724 km

Ports and harbors:  Mpulungu

Airports:  111 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 11 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047
m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:   3 914 to 1,523 m: Military Zambia

Military branches:  Army, Air Force, Police, paramilitary forces

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,313,567 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,228,385
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $32.5 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  0.9% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Zambia

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone,
small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for Southern Africa and
possibly Europe; regional money-laundering center

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

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