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Yemen Flag

Capital City: Sana'a

Border countries
: Oman, Saudi Arabia

Official Sites of Yemen
Yemen Parliament

Ministry of Informatiom - Republic of Yemen

National Information Centre

Embassy of the Republic of Yemen

Political Map of Yemen

Map of the Middle East region



Background:  North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in
1918. The British, who had set up a protectorate area around the southern
port of Aden in the 19th century, withdrew in 1967 from what became
South Yemen. Three years later, the southern government adopted a Marxist
orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from
the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the
states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen
in 1990. A southern secessionist movement in 1994 was quickly subdued. In
2000, Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to a delimitation of their border.

Geography Yemen

Location:  Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and
Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates:  15 00 N, 48 00 E

Map references:  Middle East

Area:  total: 527,970 sq km land: 527,970 sq km note: includes Perim,
Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North Yemen), and the
former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen) water:
0 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries:  total: 1,746 km border countries: Oman 288 km, Saudi
Arabia 1,458 km

Coastline:  1,906 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in
western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot,
dry, harsh desert in east

Terrain:  narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged
mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert
interior of the Arabian Peninsula

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m highest point: Jabal
an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,760 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble, small deposits
of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper, fertile soil in west

Land use:  arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% other: 97% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  4,900 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  sandstorms and dust storms in summer

Environment - current issues:  very limited natural fresh water
resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but
not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note:  strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait
linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active
shipping lanes

People Yemen

Population:  18,701,257 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 47% (male 4,468,928; female 4,317,648) 15-64
years: 50.1% (male 4,783,769; female 4,587,309) 65 years and over: 2.9%
(male 273,282; female 270,321) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  3.4% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  43.3 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  9.31 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
1.01 male(s)/female total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  66.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   62.46 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  6.9 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Yemeni(s) adjective: Yemeni

Ethnic groups:  predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians,

Religions:  Muslim including Shaf'i (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shi'a), small
numbers of Jewish, Christian, and Hindu

Languages:  Arabic

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 38% male: 53% female: 26% (1990 est.)

Government Yemen

Country name:  conventional long form: Republic of Yemen conventional
short form: Yemen local short form: Al Yaman local long form: Al
Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Sanaa

Administrative divisions:  17 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Abyan, 'Adan, Al Bayda', Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al
Mahwit, Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Ma'rib, Sa'dah, San'a',
Shabwah, Ta'izz note: there may be three more governorates: Ad Dali',
Amran, and the capital city of Sanaa

Independence:  22 May 1990, Republic of Yemen was established with
the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]
and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen
(Aden) or South Yemen]; previously North Yemen had become independent
on NA November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South Yemen had become
independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)

National holiday:  Unification Day, 22 May (1990)

Constitution:  16 May 1991; amended 29 September 1994 and February 2001

Legal system:  based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and
local tribal customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Field Marshall Ali Abdallah
SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of North Yemen, assumed
office upon the merger of North and South Yemen); Vice President
Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab Mansur al-HADI (since 3 October 1994) head of
government: Prime Minister Abd al-Qadir BA JAMAL (since 4 April 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of
the prime minister election results: Ali Abdallah SALIH elected president;
percent of vote - Ali Abdallah SALIH 96.3%, Najib Qahtan AL-SHAABI 3.7%
elections: president elected by direct, popular vote for a seven-year term
(recently extended from a five-year term by constitutional amendment);
election last held 23 September 1999 (next to be held NA 2006); vice
president appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime
ministers appointed by the president

Legislative branch:  a new constitutional amendment ratified on 20
February 2001 created a bicameral legislature consisting of a Shura
Council (111 seats; members appointed by the president) and a House of
Representatives (301 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
six-year terms) election results:  Nasserite Unionist Party 3, National
Arab Socialist Baath Party 2, independents 54, election pending 1;
seats by party as of January 2002:  Baath Party 2, YSP 2, independents
7 elections: last held 27 April 1997 (next to be held 27 April 2003)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:  there are over 12 political parties
active in Yemen, some of the more prominent are: General People's Congress
or GPC [President Ali Abdallah SALIH]; Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah
[Shaykh Abdallah bin Husayn al-AHMAR]; National Arab Socialist Baath Party
[Dr. Qassim SALAAM]; Nasserite Unionist Party [Abdel Malik al-MAKHLAFI];
Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Ali Salih MUQBIL] note: President SALIH's
General People's Congress or GPC won a landslide victory in the April
1997 legislative election and no longer governs in coalition with Shaykh
Abdallah bin Husayn al-AHMAR's Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah - the
two parties had been in coalition since the end of the civil war in 1994;
the YSP, a loyal opposition party, boycotted the April 1997 legislative
election, but announced that it would participate in Yemen's first local
elections which were held in February 2001; these local elections aim to
decentralize political power and are a key element of the government's
political reform program

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer),
WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Abd al-Wahhab Abdallah al-HAJRI FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017 telephone: [1]
(202) 965-4760 chancery: Suite 705, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20037

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Edmund J. HULL (since 17 September 2001) embassy: Dhahar Himyar Zone,
Sheraton Hotel District, Sanaa mailing address: P. O. Box 22347, Sanaa
telephone: [967] (1) 303-161 FAX: [967] (1) 303-182

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black; similar to the flag of Syria which has two green stars and
of Iraq which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a
horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of
Egypt which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band

Economy Yemen

Economy - overview:  Yemen, one of the poorest countries in the Arab
world, reported strong growth in the mid-1990s with the onset of oil
production, but has been harmed by periodic declines in oil prices. Yemen
has embarked on an IMF-supported structural adjustment program designed to
modernize and streamline the economy, which has led to substantial foreign
debt relief and restructuring. Aided by higher oil prices in 1999-2000,
Yemen worked to maintain tight control over spending and implement
additional components of the IMF program. A high population growth rate
and internal political dissension complicate the government's task.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $14.8 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $820 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 17% industry: 40% services:
43% (1998)

Population below poverty line:  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 25.9% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  33.4 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  10% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  NA

Labor force - by occupation:  most people are employed in agriculture
and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for
less than one-fourth of the labor force

Unemployment rate:  30% (1995 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $3 billion expenditures: $3.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale
production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing;
handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  3.2 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  2.976 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  grain, fruits, vegetables, pulses, qat (mildly
narcotic shrub), coffee, cotton; dairy products, livestock (sheep, goats,
cattle, camels), poultry; fish

Exports:  $3.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish

Exports - partners:  Thailand 34%, China 26%, South Korea 14%, Singapore
9%, Japan 3%, Saudi Arabia 3% (1999)

Imports:  $3 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  food and live animals, machinery and equipment

Imports - partners:  Saudi Arabia 10%, UAE 8%, France 7%, US 7%, Italy 6%

Debt - external:  $4.7 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  $176.1 million (1995)

Currency:  Yemeni rial (YER)

Currency code:  YER

Exchange rates:  Yemeni rials per US dollar - 171.860 (December 2001),
168.678 (2001), 161.718 (2000), 155.718 (1999), 135.882 (1998), 129.281

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Yemen

Telephones - main lines in use:  291,359 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  32,042 (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: since unification in 1990,
efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network
domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay,
cable, tropospheric scatter, and GSM cellular mobile telephone systems
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and
1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat;
microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios:  1.05 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  7 (plus several low-power repeaters)

Televisions:  470,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .ye

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  14,000 (2001)

Transportation Yemen

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 69,263 km paved: 9,963 km unpaved: 59,300 km (1999)

Waterways:  none

Pipelines:  crude oil 644 km; petroleum products 32 km

Ports and harbors:  Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Mukalla, As Salif, Ras Issa,
Mocha, Nishtun

Merchant marine:  total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,002
GRT/23,752 DWT ships by type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3 note: includes
some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience:
Hong Kong 2 (2002 est.)

Airports:  49 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 14 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047
m: 8 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 35 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to
3,047 m: 8 1,524 to 2,437 m: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 13 under 914 m: 4 (2001)

Military Yemen

Military branches:  Army (includes Special Forces, established in 1999),
Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Forces, Republican Guard

Military manpower - military age:  14 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 4,272,156 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 2,397,914
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 238,690
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $482.5 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  5.2% (FY01)

Military - note:  establishement of a Coast Guard, scheduled for May 2001,
has been delayed

Transnational Issues Yemen

Disputes - international:  demarcation of delimited boundary with
Saudi Arabia involves nomadic tribal affiliations; Yemen has asserted
traditional fishing rights to islands ceded to Eritrea in ICJ ruling

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

Al Muthak

Yemen News Agency Saba

Yemen Observer

Yemen Times

Arts & Culture
Yemenite Virtual Museum

Business & Economy
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Yemen Airways - Yemenia

Country Guides
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Yemen Explorer Tours

University of Aden

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Archaeological Projects in Yemen

Yemen History

Yemen Internet Directory -Yemen Gateway




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