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Uzbekistan Flag

Capital City: Tashkent

Border countries: Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan

Internet Links

Official Sites of Uzbekistan
Government of Uzbekistan

Consulate General of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Embassy of Uzbekistan

Map of Uzbekistan

Caucasus and Central Asia Map



Background:  Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff
resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed
and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era,
intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse
of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have
left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry.
Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its
dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum
reserves. Current concerns include insurgency by Islamic militants
based in Tajikistan and Afghanistan, a nonconvertible currency, and the
curtailment of human rights and democratization.

Geography Uzbekistan

Location:  Central Asia, north of Afghanistan

Geographic coordinates:  41 00 N, 64 00 E

Map references:  Asia

Area:  total: 447,400 sq km water: 22,000 sq km land: 425,400 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:  total: 6,221 km border countries: Afghanistan 137
km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km,
Turkmenistan 1,621 km

Coastline:  0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the
southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline

Maritime claims:  none (doubly landlocked)

Climate:  mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters;
semiarid grassland in east

Terrain:  mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad,
flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr
Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by
mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m highest point:
Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

Natural resources:  natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver,
copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

Land use:  arable land: 11% permanent crops: 1% other: 88% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  42,810 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  NA

Environment - current issues:  shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in
growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these
substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and
contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes
and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many
human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination
from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the
selected agreements

Geography - note:  along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly
landlocked countries in the world

People Uzbekistan

Population:  25,563,441 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 35.5% (male 4,617,110; female 4,457,065)
15-64 years: 59.8% (male 7,567,510; female 7,726,753) 65 years and over:
4.7% (male 482,137; female 712,866) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.62% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  26.09 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.98 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -1.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.68 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  71.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   67.6 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  3.03 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Uzbekistani(s) adjective: Uzbekistani

Ethnic groups:  Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak
2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)

Religions:  Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Languages:  Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 99% male: 99% female: 99% (yearend 1996)

Government Uzbekistan

Country name:   Republic of Uzbekistan conventional short form:  local
long form: Uzbekiston Respublikasi

Government type:  republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little
power outside the executive branch

Capital:  Tashkent (Toshkent)

Administrative divisions:  12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat),
1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon
Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan
Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qaraqalpog'iston
Respublikasi* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston),
Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Viloyati,
Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch) note: administrative divisions have the same
names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative
center name following in parentheses)

Independence:  1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 1 September (1991)

Constitution:  new constitution adopted 8 December 1992

Legal system:  evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent
judicial system

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March
1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet) head of
government:  of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of
the Supreme Assembly election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president;
percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 91.9%, Abdulkhafiz JALALOV 4.2% elections:
last held 9 January 2000 (next to be held NA 2007); (previously was
a five-year term, extended by national referendum on 27 January 2002)
prime minister and deputy ministers appointed by the president

Legislative branch:  unicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis (250
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms);
note - on 27 January 2002, a referendum was held that will make the
Assembly bicameral on the 2004 elections election results: percent of
vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NDP 48, Self-Sacrificers Party 34,
Fatherland Progress Party 20, Adolat Social Democratic Party 11, MTP 10,
citizens' groups 16, local government 110, vacant 1 note: not all seats
in the last Supreme Assembly election were contested; all parties in
the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV elections: last held 5
December and 19 December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2004)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president
and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)

Political parties and leaders:  Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party
[Anwar JURABAYEV, first secretary]; Democratic National Rebirth Party
(Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Aziz KAYUMOV, chairman]; People's Democratic
Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Abdulkhafiz JALOLOV, first
secretary]; Self-Sacrificers Party or Fidokorlar National Democratic
Party [Ahtam TURSUNOV, first secretary]; note - Fatherland Progress
Party merged with Self-Sacrificers Party

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Birlik (Unity) Movement
[Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad
SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 December 1992; Human Rights Society of
Uzbekistan [Abdumannob POLAT, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Society
of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]

International organization participation:  AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Shavkat HAMRAKULOV FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
 [1] (202) 887-5300 chancery:
Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
John Edward HERBST embassy: 82 Chilanzarskaya, Tashkent 700115 mailing
address: use embassy street address; US Embassy Tashkent, Department
of State, Washington, DC 20521-7110 telephone: [998] (71) 120-5444 FAX:
[998] (71) 120-6335

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and
12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant

Economy Uzbekistan

Economy - overview:  Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11%
consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60%
of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan
is now the world's second largest cotton exporter, a large producer
of gold and oil, and a regionally significant producer of chemicals
and machinery.  Following independence in December 1991, the government
sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and
tight controls on production and prices. The state continues to be
a dominating influence in the economy and has so far failed to bring
about much-needed structural changes. The IMF suspended Uzbekistan's
$185 million standby arrangement in late 1996 because of governmental
steps that made impossible fulfillment of Fund conditions. Uzbekistan
has responded to the negative external conditions generated by the
Asian and Russian financial crises by emphasizing import substitute
industrialization and by tightening export and currency controls within
its already largely closed economy. Economic policies that have repelled
foreign investment are a major factor in the economy's stagnation. A
growing debt burden, persistent inflation, and a poor business climate led
to disappointing growth in 2001. However, in December 2001 the government
voiced a renewed interest in economic reform, seeking advice from the
IMF and other financial institutions.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $62 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 33% industry: 24% services:
43% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 25.2% (1993)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  33.3 (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  23% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  11.9 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 44%, industry 20%, services 36%

Unemployment rate:  10% plus another 20% underemployed (1999 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $4 billion expenditures: $4.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries:  textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy,
natural gas, chemicals

Industrial production growth rate:  3.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:  44.075 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 86.95% hydro: 13.05%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  41.89 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  4.1 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  5 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock

Exports:  $2.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  cotton 41.5%, gold 9.6%, energy products 9.6%,
mineral fertilizers, ferrous metals, textiles, food products, automobiles
(1998 est.)

Exports - partners:  Russia 16.7%, Switzerland 8.3%, UK 7.2%, Ukraine
4.7%, South Korea 3.3%, Kazakhstan 3.1% (2000)

Imports:  $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment 49.8%, foodstuffs 16.4%,
chemicals, metals (1998 est.)

Imports - partners:  Russia 15.8%, South Korea 9.8%, US 8.7%, Germany
8.6%, Kazakhstan 7.3%, Ukraine 6.1% (2002)

Debt - external:  $5.1 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  approximately $150 million from the US (2001)

Currency:  Uzbekistani sum (UZS)

Currency code:  UZS

Exchange rates:  Uzbekistani sums per US dollar - 687.0 (January 2002),
325.0 (January 2001), 141.4 (January 2000), 111.9 (February 1999), 110.95
(December 1998), 75.8 (September 1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Uzbekistan

Telephones - main lines in use:  1.98 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  26,000 (1998)

Telephone system:  general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; in
serious need of modernization domestic: the domestic telephone system is
being expanded and technologically improved, particularly in Tashkent and
Samarqand, under contracts with prominent companies in industrialized
countries; moreover, by 1998, six cellular networks had been placed in
operation - four of the GSM type (Global System for Mobile Communication),
one D-AMPS type (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System), and one AMPS
type (Advanced Mobile Phone System) international: linked by landline
or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries
by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch;
after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE)
fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities
for international communications; Inmarsat also provides an international
connection, albeit an expensive one; satellite earth stations - NA (1998)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 20, FM 7, shortwave 10 (1998)

Radios:  10.8 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  4 (plus two repeaters that relay Russian,
Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Tajik programs) (1997)

Televisions:  6.4 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .uz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  42 (2000)

Internet users:  7,500 (2000)

Transportation Uzbekistan

Railways:  total: 3,656 km broad gauge: 3,656 km 1.520-m gauge (618 km
electrified) (2000)

Highways:  total: 81,600 km paved: 71,237 km (includes some all-weather
gravel-surfaced roads) unpaved: 10,363 km (these roads are made of
unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Waterways:  1,100 km (1990)

Pipelines:  crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 810 km

Ports and harbors:  Termiz (Amu Darya)

Airports:  267 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 10 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047
m: 5 under 914 m: 2 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 257 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to
3,047 m: 8 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 13 under 914 m: 222 (2001)

Military Uzbekistan

Military branches:  Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard,
Security Forces (internal security and border troops)

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 6,747,221 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 5,478,766
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 274,602
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $200 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2% (FY97)

Transnational Issues Uzbekistan

Disputes - international:  Uzbekistan border largely delimited with
Kazakhstan, but unresolved dispute remains over sovereignty of two border
villages, Bagys and Turkestan, and around the Arnasay dam; dispute over
access to Sokh and other Uzbek enclaves in Kyrgyzstan mars progress on
international boundary delimitation; Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
and Uzbekistan wrestle with sharing limited water resources and the
regional environmental degradation caused by the shrinking Aral Sea;
the undemarcated northern and western border with Uzbekistan is mined
in many sections

Illicit drugs:  limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and very small
amounts of opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption, almost entirely
eradicated by an effective government eradication program; increasingly
used as transshipment point for illicit drugs from Afghanistan to Russia
and Western Europe and for acetic anhydride destined for Afghanistan

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

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