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Uganda Flag

Country Profile

Capital City: Kampala (pop. 770 000)

Other Cities: Entebbe, Jinja, Lira, Mbale, Mbarara

Local Time
: UTC +3h

Location: Eastern Africa, west of Kenya.
Area: 241 040 sq. km. (93 070 sq. mi.)
Terrain: 18% inland water and swamp; 12% national parks, forest, and game reserves; 70% forest, woodland, grassland.
Border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania

In the northeast, semi-arid--rainfall less than 50 cm. (20 in.); in southwest, rainfall 130 cm. (50 in.) or more. Two dry seasons: Dec.-Feb. and June-July.

Type: No-party "Movement" system.
Constitution: The new Constitution was ratified on 12 July 1995, and promulgated on 8 October 1995.
The Constitution Of The Republic Of Uganda

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Ugandan(s).
Population (2002 census): 24,7 million.
Ethnic groups: African 99%, European, Asian, Arab 1%.
Religions: Christian 66%, Muslim 16%, traditional and other 18%.
Languages: English (official); Luganda and Swahili widely used; other Bantu and Nilotic languages.
Literacy: 62%.


Currency: Uganda Shilling (UGX)

Natural resources: Copper, cobalt, limestone.

Agriculture products:
Coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, cut flowers.

Industries: Sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement.

Exports partners:
Kenya 14.7%, Switzerland 13.7%, Netherlands 9.2%, UK 6.4%, South Africa 5.6% (2003)

Imports partners: Kenya 26%, India 7.4%, South Africa 7.2%, Japan 6.6%, UK 6.3%, UAE 5.8%, USA 5.7%, China 5.1% (2003)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Uganda


The State House

Parliament of the Republic of Uganda

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Diplomatic Missions
Embassy of Uganda in the U.S.

Uganda Diplomatic Missions Abroad

Missions in Uganda

Uganda Bureau of Statistics - UBOS

Map of Uganda



Background:  Uganda achieved independence from the UK in 1962. The
dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths
of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under
Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed another 100,000 lives. During the 1990s the
government promulgated non-party presidential and legislative elections.

Geography Uganda

Location:  Eastern Africa, west of Kenya

Geographic coordinates:  1 00 N, 32 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 236,040 sq km water: 36,330 sq km land: 199,710 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:  total: 2,698 km border countries: Democratic Republic
of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania
396 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to
February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Terrain:  mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m highest point:
Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m

Natural resources:  copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt,
arable land

Land use:  arable land: 25% permanent crops: 9% other: 66% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  90 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  NA

Environment - current issues:  draining of wetlands for agricultural use;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in
Lake Victoria; poaching is widespread

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note:  landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many
lakes and rivers

People Uganda

Population:  24,699,073 note: estimates for this country explicitly take
into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result
in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population
by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 50.9% (male 6,314,371; female 6,265,681)
15-64 years: 47% (male 5,803,430; female 5,789,713) 65 years and over:
2.1% (male 247,798; female 278,080) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.94% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  47.15 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  17.53 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: according
to the UNHCR, by the end of 2001, Uganda was host to 178,815 refugees
from a number of neighboring countries, including: Sudan 155,996, Rwanda
14,375, and Democratic Republic of the Congo 7,459 (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.89
male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  89.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   44.67 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  6.8 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  6.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  1.1 million (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  110,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Ugandan(s) adjective: Ugandan

Ethnic groups:  Baganda 17%, Ankole 8%, Basoga 8%, Iteso 8%, Bakiga
7%, Langi 6%, Rwanda 6%, Bagisu 5%, Acholi 4%, Lugbara 4%, Batoro 3%,
Bunyoro 3%, Alur 2%, Bagwere 2%, Bakonjo 2%, Jopodhola 2%, Karamojong 2%,
Rundi 2%, non-African (European, Asian, Arab) 1%, other 8%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous
beliefs 18%

Languages:  English (official national language, taught in grade schools,
used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts),
Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages,
preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be
taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages,
Swahili, Arabic

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 62.7% male: 74% female: 54% (2000 est.)

Government Uganda

Country name:  conventional long form: Republic of Uganda conventional
short form: Uganda

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Kampala

Administrative divisions:  45 districts; Adjumani, Apac, Arua, Bugiri,
Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Gulu, Hoima, Iganga, Jinja, Kabale, Kabarole,
Kalangala, Kampala, Kamuli, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kibale, Kiboga,
Kisoro, Kitgum, Kotido, Kumi, Lira, Luwero, Masaka, Masindi, Mbale,
Mbarara, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakasongola, Nebbi,
Ntungamo, Pallisa, Rakai, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Soroti, Tororo note:
there may be eleven more districts: Kaberamaido, Kamwenge, Kanungu,
Kayunga, Kyenjojo, Mayngc, Nakapiripiti, Pader, Sironko, Wakiso, Yumbe

Independence:  9 October 1962 (from UK)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

Constitution:  8 October 1995; adopted by the interim, 284-member
Constituent Assembly, charged with debating the draft constitution that
had been proposed in May 1993; the Constituent Assembly was dissolved
upon the promulgation of the constitution in October 1995

Legal system:  in 1995, the government restored the legal system to one
based on English common law and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta
MUSEVENI (since seizing power 29 January 1986); note - the president
is both chief of state and head of government head of government:
President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 29
January 1986); Prime Minister Apollo NSIBAMBI (since 5 April 1999);
note - the president is both chief of state and head of government;
the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the
cabinet cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected
legislators election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected
president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 69.3%,
Kizza BESIGYE 27.8% elections: president reelected by popular vote for
a five-year term; election last held 12 March 2001 (next to be held NA
2006); note - first popular election for president since independence
in 1962 was held in 1996; prime minister appointed by the president

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly (303 members - 214
directly elected by popular vote, 81 nominated by legally established
special interest groups [women 56, army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5],
8 ex officio members; members serve five-year terms) election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; note - election
campaigning by party was not permitted elections: last held 26 June 2001
(next to be held May or June 2006);

Judicial branch:  Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the president
and approved by the legislature); High Court (judges are appointed by
the president)

Political parties and leaders:  only one political organization, the
National Resistance Movement or NRM [President MUSEVENI, chairman] is
allowed to operate unfettered; note - the president maintains that the
NRM is not a political party, but a movement which claims the loyalty
of all Ugandans note: the new constitution requires the suspension of
political parties while the Movement organization is in governance;
of the political parties that exist but are prohibited from sponsoring
candidates, the most important are the Ugandan People's Congress or UPC
[Milton OBOTE]; Democratic Party or DP [Paul SSEMOGERERE]; Conservative
Party or CP [Joshua S. MAYANJA-NKANGI]; Justice Forum [Muhammad Kibirige
MAYANJA]; and National Democrats Forum [Chapaa KARUHANGA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA,
IGAD, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Edith
Grace SSEMPALA FAX: [1] (202)
 [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416 chancery:
Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Martin G. BRENNAN embassy: Ggaba, Plot 1577, Kampala mailing address:
P. O. Box 7007, Kampala telephone: [256] (41) 259791 through 259795 FAX:
[256] (41) 259794

Flag description:  six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red,
black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and
depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side

Economy Uganda

Economy - overview:  Uganda has substantial natural resources, including
fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper
and cobalt.  Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy,
employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export crop and
accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government -
with the support of foreign countries and international agencies -
has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking
currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing
prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The
policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting
production and export earnings. During 1990-2001, the economy turned in
a solid performance based on continued investment in the rehabilitation
of infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports,
reduced inflation, gradually improved domestic security, and the return
of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. Ongoing Ugandan involvement
in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, corruption within
the government, and slippage in the government's determination to press
reforms raise doubts about the continuation of strong growth. In 2000,
Uganda qualified for enhanced Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC)
debt relief worth $1.3 billion and Paris Club debt relief worth $145
million. These amounts combined with the original HIPC debt relief added
up to about $2 billion.  Growth for 2001 was held back because of a
continued decline in the price of coffee, Uganda's principal export.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $29 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  5.1% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,200 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 44% industry: 18% services:
38% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  35% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 21% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  37.4 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  12 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 82%, industry 5%, services 13%
(1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:  NA%

Budget:  revenues: $959 million expenditures: $1.04 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY98/99 est.)

Industries:  sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement

Industrial production growth rate:  7% (1999)

Electricity - production:  1.599 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 0.94% hydro: 99.06%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  1.314 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  174 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  1 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca),
potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry,
cut flowers

Exports:  $367 million (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  coffee, fish and fish products, tea; gold,
cotton, flowers, horticultural products

Exports - partners:  Germany 12.0%, Netherlands 10.2%, US 8.7%, Spain
8.0%, Belgium 7.1% (2000)

Imports:  $1.26 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical
supplies; cereals

Imports - partners:  Kenya 43.1%, US 7.0%, India 6.8%, South Africa 6.1%,
Japan 3.4% (2000)

Debt - external:  $3.4 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $1.4 billion (2000)

Currency:  Ugandan shilling (UGX)

Currency code:  UGX

Exchange rates:  Ugandan shillings per US dollar - 1,738.7 (January 2002),
1,755.7 (2001), 1,644.5 (2000), 1,454.8 (1999), 1,240.2 (1998), 1,083.0

Fiscal year:  1 July - 30 June

Communications Uganda

Telephones - main lines in use:  50,074; however, 80,868 main lines have
been installed (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  9,000 (1998)

Telephone system:  general assessment: seriously inadequate; two cellular
systems have been introduced, but a sharp increase in the number of main
lines is essential; e-mail and Internet services are available domestic:
intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone
communication stations, fixed and mobile cellular systems for short
range traffic international:  analog links to Kenya and Tanzania

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 7, FM 33, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:  5 million (2001)

Television broadcast stations:  8 (plus one low-power repeater) (2001)

Televisions:  500,000 (2001)

Internet country code:  .ug

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (2000)

Internet users:  25,000 (2000)

Transportation Uganda

Railways:  total: 1,241 km narrow gauge: 1,241 km 1.000-m gauge note:
a program to rehabilitate the railroad is underway (2001)

Highways:  total: 27,000 km paved: 1,800 km unpaved: 25,200 km (of which
about 4,200 km are all-weather roads) (1990)

Waterways:  Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake
Edward, Victoria Nile, Albert Nile

Ports and harbors:  Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell

Merchant marine:  total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,091
GRT/8,229 DWT ships by type: roll on/roll off 3 note: these ships are
in cargo and passenger (ferry) service on Uganda's inland waterways
(2002 est.)

Airports:  27 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 4 over 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m:
1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:   6 914 to 1,523 m: Military Uganda

Military branches:  Ugandan Peoples' Defense Force (including Army,
Marine unit, Air Wing)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 5,302,787 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 2,879,083
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $121.3 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.1% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Uganda

Disputes - international:  Tutsi, Hutu, and other ethnic groups, political
rebels, and various government forces continue fighting in Great Lakes
region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of
the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

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