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Trinidad and Tobago
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Trinidad and Tobago

Country Profile

Capital City: Port of Spain (metropolitan pop. 300 000)

Other Cities: San Fernando, Arima, Chaguanas (Trinidad); Scarborough (Tobago).

Local Time: UTC -5h

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela.
Area: 5 128 sq. km. (1 980 sq. mi.).
Terrain: Plains and low mountains.

Climate: Tropical; rainy season (June through December).

Type: Parliamentary Democracy.
Independence: 31 August 1962 (from UK).
Present constitution: 31 August 1976.

Nationality: Trinidadian(s) and Tobagonian(s).
Population: 1.3 million.
Ethnic groups: African 40%, East Indian 40%, mixed 14%, European 1%, Chinese 1%.
Religions: Christians 60%, Hindu 24%, Muslim 6%, other 10%.
Languages: English.
Literacy: 98%


Currency: Trinidad and Tobago Dollar (TTD)

Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas.

Agriculture products: Cocoa, sugarcane, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry.

Industries: Petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles.

Exports partners:
USA 66.7%, Jamaica 5.7%, France 3.5% (2004)

Imports partners: USA 24.6%, Venezuela 12%, Germany 10.8%, Spain 7%, Italy 5.5%, Brazil 5% (2004)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad & Tobago

Trinidad & Tobago Parliament

Trinidad and Tobago's Prime Minister

Diplomatic Missions
Trinidad & Tobago High Commission - Ottawa, Canada

Trinidad and Tobago Missions in The United States

Passport, Visa and other Consular Services

Entry Requirements

Map of Trinidad and Tobago

Map of Trinidad

Map of Tobago

Map of Central America and the Caribbean


Trinidad and Tobago

Background:  The islands came under British control in the 19th century;
independence was granted in 1962. The country is one of the most
prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas
production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for
expansion and is growing.

Geography Trinidad and Tobago

Location:  Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:  11 00 N, 61 00 W

Map references:  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:  total: 5,128 sq km land: 5,128 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  362 km

Maritime claims:  measured from claimed archipelagic baselines exclusive
economic zone:  edge of the continental margin contiguous zone: 24 NM

Climate:  tropical; rainy season (June to December)

Terrain:  mostly plains with some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point:
El Cerro del Aripo 940 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, natural gas, asphalt

Land use:  arable land: 15% permanent crops: 9% other: 76% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  30 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical

Environment - current issues:  water pollution from agricultural
chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches;
deforestation; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber
83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the
selected agreements

Geography - note:  Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the
world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt

People Trinidad and Tobago

Population:  1,163,724 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 23% (male 136,807; female 131,177) 15-64
years: 70.2% (male 419,847; female 396,643) 65 years and over: 6.8%
(male 35,146; female 44,104) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  -0.52% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  13.66 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  8.81 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -10.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.8 male(s)/female total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  24.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   71.25 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.8 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  1.05% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  7,800 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  530 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s) adjective: Trinidadian,

Ethnic groups:  black 39.5%, East Indian (a local term - primarily
immigrants from northern India) 40.3%, mixed 18.4%, white 0.6%, Chinese
and other 1.2%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 29.4%, Hindu 23.8%, Anglican 10.9%, Muslim
5.8%, Presbyterian 3.4%, other 26.7%

Languages:  English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish, Chinese

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 94% (2000) male: 95.9% (1999) female: 91.7% (1999)

Government Trinidad and Tobago

Country name:  conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago

Government type:  parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Port-of-Spain

Administrative divisions:  8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**;
Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint David,
Saint George, Saint Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria

Independence:  31 August 1962 (from UK)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 31 August (1962)

Constitution:  1 August 1976

Legal system:  based on English common law; judicial review of legislative
acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Arthur Napoleon Raymond
ROBINSON (since 18 March 1997) head of government: Prime Minister
Patrick MANNING (since 24 December 2001) cabinet: Cabinet appointed
from among the members of Parliament elections: president elected by an
electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House
of Representatives, for a five-year term; election last held 10 December
2001 (next to be held NA 2006); the president usually appoints as prime
minister the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives
election results:  college vote - 69%

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(31 seats; members appointed by the president for a maximum term of
five years) and the House of Representatives (36 seats; members are
elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: House of
Representatives - last held 10 December 2001 (next to be held by December
2006) note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly, with 15 members
serving four-year terms election results: House of Representatives -
percent of vote - UNC 49.9%, PNM 46.5%; seats by party - UNC 18, PNM 18

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court of Judicature (comprised of the High Court
of Justice and the Court of Appeals; the chief justice is appointed by
the president on the advice of the prime minister and the leader of the
opposition; other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of
the Judicial and Legal Service Commission); High Court of Justice; Court
of Appeals the highest court of appeal is the Privy Council in London

Political parties and leaders:  National Alliance for Reconstruction
or NAR [Hochoy CHARLES]; People's Empowerment Party or PEP [leader NA];
People's National Movement or PNM [Patrick MANNING]; Team Unity or TUN
[Ramesh MAHARAJ]; United National Congress or UNC [Basdeo PANDAY]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Jamaat-al Musilmeen [Yasin BAKR]

International organization participation:  ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mackisack LOGIE chancery: 1708 Massachusetts
Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130 telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Roy AUSTIN embassy: 15 Queen's Park West,
 P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain telephone:
Flag description:  red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the
upper hoist side

Economy Trinidad and Tobago

Economy - overview:  Trinidad and Tobago has earned a reputation
as an excellent investment site for international businesses. A
leading performer in the past 4 years has been the booming natural gas
sector. Tourism is a growing sector, although not proportionately as
important as in many other Caribbean islands. The expected recovery of
the global economy, along with anticipated higher oil prices, are plus
factors for 2002. Negative factors are persistent high unemployment and
the political uncertainties following the contentious selection of a
new government in December 2001.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $10.6 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $9,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 1.6% industry: 43.2% services:
55.2% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  21% (1992 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  5.6% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  564,000 (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:  construction and utilities 12.4%,
manufacturing, mining, and quarrying 14%, agriculture 9.5%, services 64.1%
(1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:  11.8% (2001)

Budget:  revenues: $1.54 billion expenditures: $1.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of $117.3 million (1998)

Industries:  petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement,
beverage, cotton textiles

Industrial production growth rate:  4.2% (2001)

Electricity - production:  5.153 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 99.59% hydro: 0% other:
0.41% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  4.792 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cocoa, sugarcane, rice, citrus, coffee,
vegetables; poultry

Exports:  $4.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals,
steel products, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, flowers

Exports - partners:  US 45.9%, Caricom countries 26.1%, Latin America
9.5%, EU 5.7% (1999)

Imports:  $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured
goods, food, live animals

Imports - partners:  US 39.8%, Venezuela 11.9%, EU 11%, Caricom 4.8%

Debt - external:  $2.2 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $24 million (1999 est.)

Currency:  Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TTD)

Currency code:  TTD

Exchange rates:  Trinidad and Tobago dollars per US dollar - 6.2466
(January 2002), 6.2332 (2001), 6.2998 (2000), 6.2989 (1999), 6.2983
(1998), 6.2517 (1997)

Fiscal year:  1 October - 30 September

Communications Trinidad and Tobago

Telephones - main lines in use:  252,000 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  17,411 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: excellent international service;
good local service domestic: NA international: satellite earth station -
1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 2, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  680,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  4 (1997)

Televisions:  425,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .tt

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  17 (2000)

Internet users:  42,800 (2001)

Transportation Trinidad and Tobago

Railways:  minimal agricultural railroad system near San Fernando;
common carrier railway service was discontinued in 1968 (2001)

Highways:  total: 8,320 km paved: 4,252 km unpaved: 4,068 km (1996)

Waterways:  none

Pipelines:  crude oil 1,032 km; petroleum products 19 km; natural gas
904 km

Ports and harbors:  Pointe-a-Pierre, Point Fortin, Point Lisas,
Port-of-Spain, Scarborough, Tembladora

Merchant marine:  total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,910
GRT/7,546 DWT ships by type: cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1 note: includes
a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: United
States 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  6 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 3 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m:
1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m:
2 (2001)

Military Trinidad and Tobago

Military branches:  Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (including Ground
Force, Coast Guard, and Air Wing), Trinidad and Tobago Police Service

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 347,831 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 248,324
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $90 million (1999)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.4% (1999)

Transnational Issues Trinidad and Tobago

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Trinidad Express Newspapers

Trinidad Guardian

Arts & Culture
Amon Hotep - The Order of the Self



The Calypso Tent

Pan Trinbago

When Steel Talks

Business & Economy
Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad & Tobago Stock Exchange

Investing in Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago Chamber of Industry and Commerce

Who's Who In Trinidad and Tobago Business

BWIA West Indian Airways

The Airports Authority of Trinidad and Tobago

The Port of Port-of-Spain

Destination Trinidad and Tobago - Travel and Tour Guides

Discover Trinidad & Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago

Tour of Historic Tobago

Hotels, Restaurants
Trinidad Hotels, Restaurants & Tourism Association

Certified Tour Operators
Trinidad & Tobago Sightseeing Tours

Yes Tourism


National Library Information System

University of the West Indies

Environment T&T
Environment Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago Field Naturalists' Club

Trinidad & Tobago - A brief New-World History


Indigenous Peoples
Santa Rosa Carib Community of Arima, Trinidad

Amerindians of Trinidad and Tobago

The First Nations of Trinidad & Tobago

The Trinidad and Tobago Web Directory




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