World Online Education - World Portal : International Online Education Portal
Worldwide Online Education
International Online Education Portal
Learn About the World's Online Business, Education, Economy, Politics, Culture, Religion, Media and More









Online Business Education. Economy. Politics. Culture. Religion. Media

Tanzania Flag

Capital City: Dar es Salaam

Border countries
: Burundi, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia

Internet Links

Official Sites of Tanzania
Government of the Republic of Tanzania

Tanzania Embassy

Political Map of Tanzania

Map of Zanzibar and Pemba Islands



Background:  Shortly after independence, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged
to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end
in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since
the 1970s.  Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have
led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won
despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.

Geography Tanzania

Location:  Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya
and Mozambique

Geographic coordinates:  6 00 S, 35 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 945,087 sq km note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba,
and Zanzibar water: 59,050 sq km land: 886,037 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:  total: 3,402 km border countries: Burundi 451 km,
Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda
396 km, Zambia 338 km

Coastline:  1,424 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

Terrain:  plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point:
Kilimanjaro 5,895 m

Natural resources:  hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds,
gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

Land use:  arable land: 4% permanent crops: 1% other: 95% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  1,550 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  flooding on the central plateau during the rainy
season; drought

Environment - current issues:  soil degradation; deforestation;
desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats;
recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by
illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified:
Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note:  Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa; bordered
by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the
world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika
(the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa in the southwest

People Tanzania

Population:  37,187,939 note: estimates for this country explicitly take
into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result
in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population
by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 44.6% (male 8,338,764; female 8,247,789)
15-64 years: 52.5% (male 9,674,951; female 9,847,084) 65 years and over:
2.9% (male 483,760; female 595,591) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.6% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  39.12 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  13.02 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.81 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  77.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   52.67 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  5.33 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  8.09% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  1.3 million (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  140,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Tanzanian(s) adjective: Tanzanian

Ethnic groups:  mainland - native African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu
consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian,
European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, native African, mixed Arab and
native African

Religions:  mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%;
Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim

Languages:  Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguju (name for
Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce,
administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar),
many local languages note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of
the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although
Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a
variety of sources, including Arabic and English, and it has become the
lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most
people is one of the local languages

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili
(Swahili), English, or Arabic total population: 67.8% male: 79.4% female:
56.8% (1995 est.)

Government Tanzania

Country name:  conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania former: United Republic of Tanganyika
and Zanzibar

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Dar es Salaam; note - legislative offices have been transferred
to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital; the National
Assembly now meets there on regular basis

Administrative divisions:  25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma,
Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro,
Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga,
Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar

Independence:  26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December
1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent
19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April
1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed
United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964

National holiday:  Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)

Constitution:  25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984

Legal system:  based on English common law; judicial review of legislative
acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Benjamin William MKAPA
(since 23 November 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since
5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of
government; Prime Minister Frederick SUMAYE (since NA) does not function
as the head of government head of government: President Benjamin William
MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN
(since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and
head of government; Prime Minister Frederick SUMAYE (since NA) does not
function as the head of government note: Zanzibar elects a president who
is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani Abeid KARUME
was elected to that office on 29 October 2000 cabinet: Cabinet ministers,
including the prime minister, are appointed by the president from among
the members of the National Assembly election results: Benjamin William
MKAPA reelected president; percent of vote - Benjamin William MKAPA
71.7%, Ibrahim Haruna LIPUMBA 16.3%, Augustine Lyatonga MREME 7.8%,
John Momose CHEYO 4.2% elections: president and vice president elected
on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms; election last
held 29 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister
appointed by the president

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (274 seats
- 232 elected by popular vote, 37 allocated to women nominated by the
president, five to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives;
members serve five-year terms); note - in addition to enacting laws that
apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the Assembly enacts
laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of
Representatives to make laws especially for Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House
of Representatives has 50 seats, directly elected by universal suffrage
to serve five-year terms) election results: National Assembly - percent
of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 244, CUF 16, CHADEMA 4, TLP
3, UDP 2, Zanzibar representatives 5; Zanzibar House of Representatives -
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 34, CUF 16 elections:
last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2005)

Judicial branch:  Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman);
Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court
(consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president;
holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts
(limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)

Political parties and leaders:  Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo or
CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI, chairman]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary
Party) [Benjamin William MKAPA, chairman]; Civic United Front or CUF
[Seif Sharif HAMAD, secretary-general]; Democratic Party (unregistered)
[Reverend Christopher MTIKLA]; National Convention for Construction and
Reform or NCCR [James MBATIA, secretary general]; Tanzania Labor Party or
TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREMA, chairman]; Union for Multiparty Democracy
or UMD [leader NA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Mustafa
Salim NYANG'ANYI chancery: 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX:
[1] (202) 797-7408 telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Robert V. ROYALL embassy: 140 Msese Road, Kinondoni District, Dar es
Salaam mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam telephone: [255]
(22) 666010 through 666015 FAX: [255] (22) 666701

Flag description:  divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from
the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green
and the lower triangle is blue

Economy Tanzania

Economy - overview:  Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the
world. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts
for half of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the work
force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops
to only 4% of the land area. Industry is mainly limited to processing
agricultural products and light consumer goods. The World Bank, the
International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided funds to
rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure. Growth in
1991-2001 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial
increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Natural gas exploration
in the Rufiji Delta looks promising and production could start by
2002. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private sector growth
and investment. Continued donor support and solid macroeconomic policies
should support steady real GDP growth of 5% in 2002 and 2003.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $22.1 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  5% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $610 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 48.4% industry: 16.7% services:
34.9% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  51.1% (1991 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 30.1% (1993)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  38.2 (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  13.495 million

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 80%, industry and services 20%
(2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:  NA%

Budget:  revenues: $1.01 billion expenditures: $1.38 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)

Industries:  primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes,
sisal twine), diamond and gold mining, oil refining, shoes, cement,
textiles, wood products, fertilizer, salt

Industrial production growth rate:  8.4% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production:  2.765 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 18.08% hydro: 81.92%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  2.616 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  45 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum
(insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves
(Zanzibar), corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables;
cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:  $827 million (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton

Exports - partners:  UK 22.0%, India 14.8%, Germany 9.9%, Netherlands 6.9%

Imports:  $1.55 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  consumer goods, machinery and transportation
equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil

Imports - partners:  South Africa 11.5%, Japan 9.3%, UK 7.0%, Australia
6.2% (2000)

Debt - external:  $6.8 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $963 million (1997)

Currency:  Tanzanian shilling (TZS)

Currency code:  TZS

Exchange rates:  Tanzanian shillings per US dollar - 924.70 (January
2002), 876.41 (2001), 800.41 (2000), 744.76 (1999), 664.67 (1998), 612.12

Fiscal year:  1 July - 30 June

Communications Tanzania

Telephones - main lines in use:  127,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  30,000 (1999)

Telephone system:  general assessment: fair system operating below
capacity and being modernized for better service; VSAT (very small
aperture terminal) system under construction domestic: trunk service
provided by open wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and
fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital international: satellite
earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 12, FM 11, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios:  8.8 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  3 (1999)

Televisions:  103,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .tz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  6 (2000)

Internet users:  115,000 (2001)

Transportation Tanzania

Railways:  total: 3,569 km narrow gauge: 2,600 km 1.000-m gauge; 969
km 1.067-m gauge note: the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA),
which operates 1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge track between Dar es
Salaam and Kapiri Mposhi in Zambia (of which 969 km are in Tanzania and
891 km are in Zambia) is not a part of Tanzania Railways Corporation;
because of the difference in gauge, this system does not connect to
Tanzania Railways (2001)

Highways:  total: 85,000 km paved: 4,250 km unpaved: 80,750 km (2001)

Waterways:  note: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa are
principal avenues of commerce between Tanzania and its neighbors on
those lakes

Pipelines:  crude oil 982 km

Ports and harbors:  Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Kigoma, Kilwa Masoko, Lindi,
Mtwara, Mwanza, Pangani, Tanga, Wete, Zanzibar

Merchant marine:  total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,987
GRT/27,121 DWT ships by type: cargo 2, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum
tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  125 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 11 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047
m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 114 1,524 to 2,437 m: 18 914
to 1,523 m: 61 under 914 m: 35 (2001)

Military Tanzania

Military branches:  Tanzanian People's Defense Force (including Army,
Navy, and Air Force), paramilitary Police Field Force Unit (including
Police Marine Unit and Police Air Wing), territorial militia

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 8,636,817 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 4,997,257
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $19 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  0.2% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Tanzania

Disputes - international:  Tanzania and Malawi maintain a largely dormant
dispute over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and current location
of historical boundary in the meandering Songwe River

Illicit drugs:  growing role in transshipment of Southwest and Southeast
Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for South African,
European, and US markets and of South Asian methaqualone bound for
Southern Africa

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

Tanzania News
The Arusha Times

The Express

IPP Media

Business & Economy
Bank of Tanzania

Tanzania Chamber of Commerce Industry & Agriculture

Air Tanzania

Country Guides



Travel Tanzania

University Of Dar Es Salaam

History of Tanganyika/Tanzania

Tanzania History

Sukuma Museum


Tanzania National Parks

Tanzania startpage for East Africa




Education Resources

Natural Stone Veneer
Stone Directory

Las Vegas Graphics & Web Design
Las Vegas Graphic & Web Design
Graphic Design & Web Design in Las Vegas

Dentures. Complete Dentures. Partial Dentures.
 Complete Dentures
 Partial Dentures

Leadership Courses & Management Courses in Las Vegas USA
Management Training Courses in Las Vegas USA
Leadership Training & Management Courses in Las Vegas

Management  Best Practices
Management Best Practices

Management Consulting Courses
Management Consulting Courses

Management Training Courses
Management Training Courses

Business School Online
Online Business Schools

Open Courseware
Free Open Courses

Online Business Courses
Business Schools Online

Business Management Courses
Business Management Courses

CEO Magazine
CEO Magazine

CEO Library
CEO Library

CEO Club
Executive Networking

CEO Books
CEO Books

MBA Review
Review of MBA Programs

Best MBA
Ranking of World's Best MBA Programs

MBA distance Learning
Online MBA

Top Ranking MBA
Ranking of Top MBA Programs

Online Executive MBA
Online Executive MBA Programs

Accelerated MBA
Accelerated MBA Programs

Las Vegas Web Design
Las Vegas Web Design