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Tajikistan Flag

Capital City: Dushanbe

Other Cities: Khujand, Kurgan-Tube, Khorog, Kulob

Border countries: Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan

Internet Links

Official Sites of Tajikistan
Embassy of the Republic of Tajikistan

Tajikistans embassies and consulates aborad

Map of Tajikistan

Caucasus and Central Asia Map



Background:  Tajikistan has experienced three changes in government and
a five-year civil war since it gained independence in 1991 from the
USSR. A peace agreement among rival factions was signed in 1997, and
implemented in 2000. The central government's less than total control
over some areas of the country has forced it to compromise and forge
alliances among factions. Open skirmishes in the streets are less of a
problem than they were during the war five years ago.  Attention by the
international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan may bring
increased economic development assistance, which would create jobs and
increase stability in the long term.  Tajikistan is in the beginning
stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has been
approved to join NATO's Partnership for Peace.

Geography Tajikistan

Location:  Central Asia, west of China

Geographic coordinates:  39 00 N, 71 00 E

Map references:  Asia

Area:  total: 143,100 sq km water: 400 sq km land: 142,700 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries:  total: 3,651 km border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km,
China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid
to polar in Pamir Mountains

Terrain:  Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana
Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m highest
point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m

Natural resources:  hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown
coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold

Land use:  arable land: 5% permanent crops: 1% other: 94% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  7,200 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  earthquakes and floods

Environment - current issues:  inadequate sanitation facilities;
increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive
pesticides; part of the basin of the shrinking Aral Sea suffers from
severe overutilization of available water for irrigation and associated

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone
Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Geography - note:
landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the
north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili
Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the
former USSR

People Tajikistan

Population:  6,719,567 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 40.4% (male 1,370,314; female 1,346,465)
15-64 years: 54.9% (male 1,835,573; female 1,854,677) 65 years and over:
4.7% (male 136,033; female 176,505) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.12% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  32.99 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  8.51 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -3.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.77 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  114.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   67.46 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  4.23 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Tajikistani(s) adjective: Tajikistani

Ethnic groups:  Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining because
of emigration), other 6.6%

Religions:  Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi'a Muslim 5%

Languages:  Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 98% male: 99% female: 97% (1989 est.)

Government Tajikistan

Country name:   Republic of Tajikistan conventional short form:  local
long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Dushanbe

Administrative divisions:  2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat)
and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni
Badakhshon* (Khorugh), Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Sughd
(Khujand) note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

Independence:  9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:  Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)

Constitution:  6 November 1994

Legal system:  based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Emomali RAHMONOV (since
6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19
November 1992) head of
 Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999) cabinet:  Assembly
 election results: Emomali RAHMONOV elected president; percent of
vote - Emomali RAHMONOV 97%, Davlat USMON 2% elections: president elected
by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 6 November 1999
(next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president

Legislative branch:  bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of
the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon
(63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
and the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (33 seats;
members are indirectly elected, 25 selected by local deputies, 8 appointed
by the president; all serve five-year terms) election results: Assembly
of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65%, Communist
Party 20%, Islamic Rebirth Party 7.5%, other 7.5%; seats by party - NA;
National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
NA elections: last held 27 February and 12 March 2000 for the Assembly
of Representatives (next to be held NA 2005) and 23 March 2000 for the
National Assembly (next to be held NA 2005)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)

Political parties and leaders:  Congress of People's Unity of Tajikistan
[Saiffidin TURAYEV]; Democratic Party or TDP [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV,
chairman]; Islamic Rebirth Party [Muhammadsharif HIMMAT-ZODA, chairman];
Party of Justice and Development [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]; People's Democratic
Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMONOV]; Socialist Party [leader
NA]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]; Adolatho "Justice"
Party [Abdurahmon KARIMOV, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  there are three unregistered
political parties with 1,000 or more members:  ZOIROV]; Unity Party
[Hikmatuko SAIDOV]

International organization participation:  AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  Tajikistan does not have an embassy
in the US, but does have a permanent mission to the UN: address - 136 East
67th Street, New York, NY 10021, telephone - [1] (212) 472-7645, FAX -
[1] (212) 628-0252; permanent representative to the UN is Rashid ALIMOV

Diplomatic representation from the US:   Ambassador Franklin P. "Pancho"
HUDDLE, Jr.  embassy:  Dushanbe is not yet fully operational; most
business is still handled in Almaty at 531 Sayfullin Street, Almaty,
Kazakhstan, telephone 7-3272-58-79-61, FAX 7-3272-58079-68 mailing
address: use embassy street address telephone: 992-372-21-03-48, 03-50,
03-52 FAX: 992-372-24-15-62

Flag description:  three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe
of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed
stars is located in the center of the white stripe

Economy Tajikistan

Economy - overview:  Tajikistan has the lowest per capita GDP among the
15 former Soviet republics. Cotton is the most important crop. Mineral
resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold, uranium,
and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower
facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and
food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already
weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and
agricultural production. Even though 80% of its people continue to live
in abject poverty, Tajikistan has experienced strong economic growth since
1997. Continued privatization of medium and large state-owned enterprises
will further increase productivity. Tajikistan's economic situation,
however, remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural
reforms, weak governance, and the external debt burden. Servicing of
the debt, owed principally to Russia and Uzbekistan, could require as
much as 50% of government revenues in 2002, thus limiting the nation's
ability to meet pressing development needs.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $7.5 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  8.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,140 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 19% industry: 25% services:
56% (2000)

Population below poverty line:  80% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  33% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  3.187 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 67.2%, industry 7.5%, services
25.3% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:  20% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $146 million expenditures: $196 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries:  aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement,
vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers

Industrial production growth rate:  10.3% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:  14.245 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 2% hydro: 98% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  12.539 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  3.909 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  3.2 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables;
cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:  $640 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable
oil, textiles

Exports - partners:  Europe 43%, Russia 30%, Uzbekistan 13% (2000)

Imports:  $700 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide,
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:  Uzbekistan 27%, Russia 16%, Europe 12% (2000)

Debt - external:  $1.23 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $60.7 million from US (2001)

Currency:  somoni

Currency code:  SM

Exchange rates:  Tajikistani somoni per US dollar - 2.55 (January
2002), 2.2 (January 2001), 1550 (January 2000), 998 (January 1999), 350
(January 1997), 284 (January 1996) note: the new unit of exchange was
introduced on 30 October 2000, with one somoni equal to 1,000 of the
old Tajikistani rubles

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Tajikistan

Telephones - main lines in use:  363,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  2,500 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: poorly developed and not well
maintained; many towns are not reached by the national network domestic:
cable and microwave radio relay international: linked by cable and
microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections
to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat
to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth
stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 8, FM 7, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:  1.291 million (1991)

Television broadcast stations:  13 (2001)

Televisions:  820,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .tj

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  5 (2001)

Internet users:  2,000 (2000)

Transportation Tajikistan

Railways:  total: 482 km broad gauge: 482 km 1.520-m gauge note: includes
only lines in common carrier service; lines dedicated to particular
industries are excluded (2001)

Highways:  total: 29,900 km paved: 21,400 km (includes some all-weather
gravel-surfaced roads) unpaved: 8,500 km (these roads are made of
unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Waterways:  none

Pipelines:  natural gas 400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors:  none

Airports:  53 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 under 914 m:
1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 51 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to
2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 12 under 914 m: 36 (2001)

Military Tajikistan

Military branches:  Army, Air Force and Air Defense Force, Presidential
National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,646,278 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,349,505
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 72,056
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $35.4 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  3.9% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Tajikistan

Disputes - international:  the undemarcated northern and western border
with Uzbekistan is mined in many sections; continues to maintain a
territorial dispute with Kyrgyzstan in Isfara Valley area; ongoing
talks with China have failed to resolve the longstanding dispute
over the indefinite boundary; Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,
and Uzbekistan wrestle with sharing limited water resources and the
regional environmental degradation caused by the shrinking of the Aral Sea

Illicit drugs:  major transshipment zone for heroin and opiates
from Afghanistan going to Russia and Western Europe; limited illicit
cultivation of narcotics crops, mostly for domestic consumption

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

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