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Flag of Sweden

Country Profile

Capital City: Stockholm (city population: 743 000; metropolitan population 1.8 million)

Other Cities: Göteborg Göteborgs Stad - the City of Gothenburg (city population: 467 000; metropolitan population: 766 000). Helsingborg Stad Helsingborg. Helsingborg Turistinformation Kiruna Kiruna, Sweden's most northerly municipality. Malmö (city population: 257,000; metropolitan population: 550 000) Malmö Stad - the City of Malmö. Uppsala The City of Uppsala.

Local Time:
UTC +1h

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway.
Area: 449 964 sq. km. (173 731 sq. mi.)
Terrain: fertile plains in the south; further north heavily wooded highlands, mountains in west, the northern three-fifths of Sweden - you see hills and mountains, forests and large river valleys.
Border countries: Finland, Norway

Climate: Temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north.

Type: constitutional monarchy
Independence: 6 June 1523; when Gustav Eriksson Vasa, known as the elected king Gustav I of Sweden re-established separation of the Swedish Crown from the Kalmar Union of Norway, Denmark and Sweden.

Nationality: Noun--Swedes; adjective--Swedish.
Population: 9 million (2004).
Ethnic Groups: Indigenous Swedes, ethnic Finns, ethnic Lapps.
Immigrants: Finns, Bosnians, Iranians, Norwegians, Danes, Hungarians, Iraqis, and Turks.
Religions: Lutheran (87%), Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Jewish, Buddhist, Muslim. Languages: Swedish, English is by far the leading foreign language, small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities.
Literacy: 100%


Currency: Swedish Krona (SEK)

Natural resources: Iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower.
Agriculture products: Barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk.

Industries: Iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles.

Exports partners:
USA 11.5%, Germany 10%, Norway 8.4%, UK 7.8%, Denmark 6.4%, Finland 5.7%, Netherlands 4.9%, France 4.9%, Belgium 4.5% (2003)

Imports partners: Germany 18.7%, Denmark 9%, UK 8%, Norway 8%, Netherlands 6.8%, Finland 5.6%, France 5.5%, Belgium 4.2% (2003)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Sweden
Kungliga Hovstaterna

Sveriges Riksdag




Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of Sweden to the United Nations

Sweden Abroad

Svenska FN-förbundet

Statistiska Centralbyrån - SCB - Statistik

Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut (SMHI)

Map of Sweden

The National Atlas of Sweden



Background:  A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not
participated in any war in almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was
preserved in both World Wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula
of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was
challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment, rising maintenance costs,
and a declining position in world markets. Indecision over the country's
role in the political and economic integration of Europe delayed Sweden's
entry into the EU until 1995, and waived the introduction of the euro
in 1999.

Geography Sweden

Location:  Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia,
Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Geographic coordinates:  62 00 N, 15 00 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 449,964 sq km water: 39,030 sq km land: 410,934 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:  total: 2,205 km border countries: Finland 586 km,
Norway 1,619 km

Coastline:  3,218 km

Maritime claims:  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of
exploitation exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
territorial sea: 12 NM (adjustments made to return a portion of straits
to high seas)

Climate:  temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly
cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain:  mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m highest point:
Kebnekaise 2,111 m

Natural resources:  zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber,
uranium, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 7% permanent crops: 0% other: 93% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  1,150 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in
the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic

Environment - current issues:  acid rain damage to soils and lakes;
pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:  strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic
and North Seas

People Sweden

Population:  8,876,744 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 18% (male 817,688; female 776,018) 15-64
years: 64.7% (male 2,922,095; female 2,824,770) 65 years and over: 17.3%
(male 651,120; female 885,053) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.02% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  9.81 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  10.6 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.74 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  3.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   82.64 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.54 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.08% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  3,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Swede(s) adjective: Swedish

Ethnic groups:  indigenous population: Swedes and Finnish and Sami
minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs,
Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks

Religions:  Lutheran 87%, Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim,
Jewish, Buddhist

Languages:  Swedish note: small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 99% (1979 est.)  male: NA% female: NA%

Government Sweden

Country name:   Kingdom of Sweden conventional short form: Government
type:  constitutional monarchy

Capital:  Stockholm

Administrative divisions:  21 counties (lan, singular and plural);
Blekinge, Dalarnas, Gavleborgs, Gotlands, Hallands, Jamtlands,
Jonkopings, Kalmar, Kronobergs, Norrbottens, Orebro, Ostergotlands,
Skane, Sodermanlands, Stockholms, Uppsala, Varmlands, Vasterbottens,
Vasternorrlands, Vastmanlands, Vastra Gotalands

Independence:  6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)

National holiday:  Flag Day, 6 June

Constitution:  1 January 1975

Legal system:  civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19
September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree,
daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977) head of government: Prime
Minister Goran PERSSON (since 21 March 1996) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by
the prime minister elections: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister
elected by the Parliament; election last held NA September 1998 (next
to be held 20 September 2002) election results: Goran PERSSON reelected
prime minister with 131 out of 349 votes

Legislative branch:  unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members
are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to
serve four-year terms) elections: last held 20 September 1998 (next to
be held 15 September 2002) election results: percent of vote by party
- Social Democrats 36.5%, Moderates 22.7%, Left Party 12%, Christian
Democrats 11.8%, Center Party 5.1%, Liberal Party 4.7%, Greens 4.5%;
seats by party - Social Democrats 131, Moderates 82, Left Party 43,
Christian Democrats 42, Center Party 18, Liberal Party 17, Greens 16

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed
by the prime minister and the cabinet)

Political parties and leaders:  Center Party [Maud OLOFSSON]; Christian
Democratic Party [Alf SVENSSON]; Communist Workers' Party [Rolf
HAGEL]; Green Party [no formal leader but party spokespersons are Maria
WETTERSTRAND and Peter ERIKSSON]; Left Party or VP (formerly Communist)
[Gudrun SCHYMAN]; Liberal People's Party [Lars LEIJONBORG]; Moderate Party
(conservative) [Bo LUNDGREN]; Social Democratic Party [Goran PERSSON]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group,
NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA,
(observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Jan ELIASSON consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York FAX: [1]
(202) 467-2699 telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600 chancery: 1501 M Street NW,
Washington, DC 20005-1702

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Charles A. HEIMBOLD, Jr.  embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds VAG 31, SE-11589
Stockholm mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, Department of
State, Washington, DC 20521-5750 (pouch) telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64

Flag description:  blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges
of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side
in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy Sweden

Economy - overview:  Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole 20th
century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a
mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It
has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external
communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydropower, and
iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented
toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of
industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50%
of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for only 2% of GDP and 2%
of the jobs. The government's commitment to fiscal discipline resulted
in a substantive budgetary surplus in 2001, but is expected to shrink
somewhat in 2002, due to the global economic slowdown, tax cuts, and
spending increases. The Swedish central bank (the Riksbank) is focusing
on price stability with an inflation target of 2% for 2002.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $219 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  1.6% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $24,700 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 2% industry: 28.7% services:
69.3% (2000)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 20.1% (1992)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  25 (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2.7% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  4.4 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 2%, industry 24%, services 74%
(2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:  3.9% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $119 billion expenditures: $110 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and
telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed
foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate:  4.5% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  144.621 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 6.06% hydro: 53.81%
other: 2.72% (2000) nuclear: 37.41%

Electricity - consumption:  139.176 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  13.628 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  18.306 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk

Exports:  $96 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products,
pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals

Exports - partners:  EU 53.6% (Germany 10.6%, UK 9.1%, Denmark 5.3%,
France 5.1%), US 9.5%, Norway 7.5% (2000)

Imports:  $89.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery, petroleum and petroleum products,
chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - partners:  EU 60.3% (Germany 16.3%, UK 8.8%, Denmark 6.7%,
France 5.6%), Norway 8.2%, US 6.7% (2000)

Debt - external:  $66.5 billion (1994)

Economic aid - donor:  ODA, $1.7 billion (1997)

Currency:  Swedish krona (SEK)

Currency code:  SEK

Exchange rates:  Swedish kronor per US dollar - 10.4381 (January 2002),
10.3291 (2001), 9.1622 (2000), 8.2624 (1999), 7.9499 (1998), 7.6349 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Sweden

Telephones - main lines in use:  6.017 million (December 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  3.835 million (October 1998)

Telephone system:  general assessment: excellent domestic and
international facilities; automatic system domestic: coaxial and
multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel
microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels
international: 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations -
1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and
Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station
with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 1, FM 265, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:  8.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  169 (plus 1,299 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:  4.6 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .se

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  29 (2000)

Internet users:  5.64 million (2000)

Transportation Sweden

Railways:  total: 12,821 km standard gauge: 12,600 km 1.435-m gauge
(7,918 km electrified) narrow gauge: 221 km 0.891-m gauge (2001)

Highways:  total: 210,760 km paved: 162,707 km (including 1,428 km of
expressways) unpaved: 48,053 km (1999)

Waterways:  2,052 km note: navigable to small steamers and barges

Pipelines:  natural gas 84 km

Ports and harbors:  Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Hudiksvall,
Kalmar, Karlshamn, Malmo, Solvesborg, Stockholm, Sundsvall

Merchant marine:  total: 174 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,255,344
GRT/1,609,844 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered
here as a flag of convenience: Denmark 8, Finland 8, Germany 3, Italy 3,
Japan 2, Norway 7 (2002 est.)  ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 37, chemical
tanker 33, combination ore/oil 4, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 27,
railcar carrier 1, roll on/roll off 38, short-sea passenger 4, specialized
tanker 6, vehicle carrier 18

Airports:  255 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 147 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to
3,047 m: 12 914 to 1,523 m: 27 under 914 m: 25 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 80

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 108 914 to 1,523 m: 6 under
914 m: 102 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Sweden

Military branches:  Army, Royal Navy (including Coast Artillery and
Naval Helicopter Service), Air Force

Military manpower - military age:  19 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,060,205 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,800,991
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 51,506
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $4,395,100,000 (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.1% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Sweden

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

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