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St Pierre & Miquelon
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Encyclopédie de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon


Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Background:  First settled by the French in the early 17th century,
the islands represent the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast
North American possessions.

Geography Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Location:  Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
south of Newfoundland (Canada)

Geographic coordinates:  46 50 N, 56 20 W

Map references:  North America

Area:  total: 242 sq km note: includes eight small islands in the Saint
Pierre and the Miquelon groups water: 0 sq km land: 242 sq km

Area - comparative:  1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  120 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn
are windy

Terrain:  mostly barren rock

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Morne de la Grande Montagne 240 m

Natural resources:  fish, deepwater ports

Land use:  arable land: 13% permanent crops: 0% other: 87% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime

Environment - current issues:  recent test drilling for oil in waters
around Saint Pierre and Miquelon may bring future development that would
impact the environment

Geography - note:  vegetation scanty

People Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Population:  6,954 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 25.4% (male 904; female 864) 15-64 years:
64.4% (male 2,288; female 2,193) 65 years and over: 10.2% (male 303;
female 402) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.35% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  14.96 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  6.61 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -4.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.75 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  8.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   80.32 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.1 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women) adjective: French

Ethnic groups:  Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)

Religions:  Roman Catholic 99%

Languages:  French

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 99% male: 99% female: 99% (1982 est.)

Government Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Country name:  conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint
Pierre and Miquelon conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon local long form: Departement
de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

Dependency status:  self-governing territorial collectivity of France

Government type:  NA

Capital:  Saint-Pierre

Administrative divisions:  none (territorial collectivity of France);
note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by
the US Government, but there are two communes - Saint Pierre, Miquelon
at the second order

Independence:  none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under
French control since 1763)

National holiday:  Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)

Constitution:  28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system:  French law with special adaptations for local conditions,
such as housing and taxation

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of France
(since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Jean-Francois TALLON (since
NA) elections: French president elected by popular vote for a five-year
term; election last held, first round - 21 April 2002, second round -
5 May 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); prefect appointed by the French
president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president
of the General Council is elected by the members of the council head of
government: President of the General Council Marc PLANTAGENEST (since NA)
cabinet: NA

Legislative branch:  unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19
seats - 15 from Saint Pierre and 4 from Miquelon; members are elected
by popular vote to serve six-year terms) elections: elections last held
19 and 26 Marach 2000 (next to be held NA April 2006) election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PS 12, PRG 2, UDF-RPR
5 note: Saint Pierre and Miquelon elect 1 seat to the French Senate;
elections last held NA September 1995 (next to be held NA September 2004);
results - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPR 1; Saint
Pierre and Miquelon also elects 1 seat to the French National Assembly;
elections last held, first round - 9 June 2002, second round - 16 June
2002 (next to be held NA 2007); results - percent of vote by party -
NA%; seats by party - UDF 1

Judicial branch:  Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur

Political parties and leaders:  PRG [leader NA]; Rassemblement pour
la Republique or RPR [leader NA]; Socialist Party or PS [leader NA];
Union pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  FZ, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none (territorial collectivity
of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US:  none (territorial collectivity
of France)

Flag description:  a yellow sailing ship facing the hoist side rides on
a dark blue background with a black wave line under the ship; on the
hoist side, a vertical band is divided into three parts: the top part
is red with a green diagonal cross extending to the corners overlaid by
a white cross dividing the square into four sections; the middle part
has a white background with an ermine pattern; the third part has a red
background with two stylized yellow lions outlined in black, one on top
of the other; the flag of France is used for official occasions

Economy Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Economy - overview:  The inhabitants have traditionally earned their
livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the
coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because
of disputes with Canada over fishing quotas and a steady decline in the
number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre. In 1992, an arbitration panel
awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone of 12,348 sq km to settle
a longstanding territorial dispute with Canada, although it represents
only 25% of what France had sought. The islands are heavily subsidized
by France to the great betterment of living standards. The government
hopes an expansion of tourism will boost economic prospects. Recent test
drilling for oil may pave the way for development of the energy sector.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $74 million (1996 est.); supplemented
by annual payments from France of about $60 million

GDP - real growth rate:  NA%

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $11,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2.1% (1991-96 average)

Labor force:  3,000 (1997)

Labor force - by occupation:  fishing 18%, industry (mainly
fish-processing) 41%, services 41% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate:  9.8% (1997)

Budget:  revenues: $70 million expenditures: $60 million, including
capital expenditures of $24 million (1996 est.)

Industries:  fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  41 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  38.13 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish

Exports:  $12 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities:  fish and fish products, soybeans, animal feed,
mollusks and crustaceans, fox and mink pelts

Exports - partners:  US 43%, Egypt 14%, Japan 11%, Colombia 8% (1999)

Imports:  $55 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities:  meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment,
machinery, building materials

Imports - partners:  France 44%, Canada 40% (1999)

Debt - external:  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:  approximately $60 million in annual grants
from France

Currency:  euro (EUR); French franc (FRF)

Currency code:  EUR; FRF

Exchange rates:  euros per US dollar - 1.06594 (January 2001), 1.08540
(2000), 0.93863 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.8995 (1998),
5.8367 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Telephones - main lines in use:  4,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  0 (1994)

Telephone system:  general assessment: adequate domestic: NA
international: radiotelephone communication with most countries in the
world; 1 earth station in French domestic satellite system

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  4,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  0 (there are, however, two repeaters
which rebroadcast programs from France, Canada, and the US) (1997)

Televisions:  4,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .pm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  NA

Transportation Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 114 km paved: 69 km unpaved: 45 km (1994 est.)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Saint Pierre

Merchant marine:  none (2002 est.)

Airports:  2 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to
1,523 m: 1 (2001)

Military Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002




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