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Flag of Slovakia

Country Profile

Capital City: Bratislava (pop. 451 395)

Other Cities: Kosice (242 170) City of Kosice, capital of Eastern Slovakia and the second largest city in the Slovak Republic Presov (93 461) City of Presovsk (Slovak) Nitra (87 555), Zilina (86 923), Banska Bystrica (84 816)

Local Time
: UTC +1h

Location: landlocked country in Central Europe, bounded on the northwest by the Czech Republic, on the north by Poland, on the east by Ukraine, on the south by Hungary, and on the southwest by Austria.

Border countries
: Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Ukraine

Climate: Temperate; mild summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters.

Type: Parliamentary republic.
Independence: The Slovak Republic was established l January 1993
(former Czechoslovak Republic established 1918).
Constitution: Signed September 3, 1992.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Slovak(s).
Population (May 2001 census*): 5,379,455.
Ethnic groups (2001): Slovaks 85.8%, Hungarians 9.7%, Roma 1.7%, Czechs 0.8%, Ruthenians 0.4%, Ukranians 0.2%, other 1.4%.
Unofficial estimates place the Roma population between 6%-10%.
Religions (2001): Roman Catholic 69%, Protestant 9%, Greek Catholic 4%, Orthodox 0.9%.
Languages: Slovak (official), Hungarian, Ruthenian, and Ukrainian.
Literacy: 99%.


: Slovak Koruna (SKK)

Natural resources: Antimony, mercury, iron, copper, lead, zinc, magnesite, limestone, lignite.

Agriculture products: Milk, eggs, poultry, cattle, hogs, potatoes, oils, grains, vegetables.

Industries: Metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products.

Exports partners:
Germany 37.2%, Czech Republic 12%, Austria 9.8%, Italy 5.4%, Poland 4.7%, US 4.7%, Hungary 4.2% (2003)

Imports partners: Germany 27.5%, Czech Republic 18.3%, Russia 10.8%, Austria 6.4%, Italy 5.6%, Poland 4.1%, Hungary 4% (2003)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Slovakia

Úrad Vlády
The Government of Slovakia.

The President of the Slovak Republic
Rudolf Schuster's office (in Slovak).

Ministerstvo Zahranicnych Veci
Slovakia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of the Slovak Republic to the United Nations
Slovakia's representation to the UN.
Embassy of the Slovak Republic in the U.S.
The Mission in Washington D.C.
Slovak Embassies Abroad
Address Llist of Slovak Embassies Abroad.
Foreign Diplomatic Missions in Slovakia
Address Llist of Foreign Diplomatic Missions in Slovakia.

Statisticky úrad Slovenskej republiky
Statistical Office of the Slowak Repubilc.

Slovensky hydrometeorologicky ústav (SHMÚ)
Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute.

Map of Slovakia
Political Map of Slovakia.



Background:  In 1918 the Slovaks joined the closely related Czechs to form
Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became
a Communist nation within Soviet-ruled Eastern Europe. Soviet influence
collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks
and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Historic,
political, and geographic factors have caused Slovakia to experience
more difficulty in developing a modern market economy than some of its
Central European neighbors.

Geography Slovakia

Location:  Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates:  48 40 N, 19 30 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 48,845 sq km water: 45 sq km land: 48,800 sq km

Area - comparative:  about twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries:  total: 1,524 km border countries: Austria 91 km,
Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 677 km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 97 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain:  rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands
in the south

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m highest point:
Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m

Natural resources:  brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore,
copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land

Land use:  arable land: 31% permanent crops: 3% other: 66% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  1,740 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  NA

Environment - current issues:  air pollution from metallurgical plants
presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur
94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed,
but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:  landlocked; most of the country is rugged and
mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many
scenic lakes and valleys

People Slovakia

Population:  5,422,366 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 18.3% (male 508,256; female 484,739) 15-64
years: 70.1% (male 1,888,705; female 1,910,842) 65 years and over: 11.6%
(male 237,770; female 392,054) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.14% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  10.09 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  9.22 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.61 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  8.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   78.41 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.25 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  400 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Slovak(s) adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups:  Slovak 85.7%, Hungarian 10.6%, Roma 1.6% (the 1992 census
figures underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which is about 500,000),
Czech, Moravian, Silesian 1.1%, Ruthenian and Ukrainian 0.6%, German 0.1%,
Polish 0.1%, other 0.2% (1996)

Religions:  Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%, Orthodox
4.1%, other 17.5%

Languages:  Slovak (official), Hungarian

Literacy:  definition: NA total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Slovakia

Country name:  conventional long form: Slovak Republic conventional
short form: Slovakia local short form: Slovensko local long form:
Slovenska Republika

Government type:  parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Bratislava

Administrative divisions:  8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj);
Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky,
Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky

Independence:  1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech
Republic and Slovakia)

National holiday:  Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)

Constitution:  ratified 1 September 1992, fully effective 1 January 1993;
changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president;
amended February 2001 to allow Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU

Legal system:  civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with
the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe
(OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Rudolf SCHUSTER (since 15
June 1999) head of government: Prime Minister Mikulas DZURINDA (since
30 October 1998) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by
direct, popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 May 1999
(next to be held NA May/June 2004); following National Council elections,
the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition
is usually appointed prime minister by the president note: government
coalition - SDK, SDL, SMK, SOP, KDH election results: Rudolf SCHUSTER
elected president in the first direct, popular election; percent of vote -
Rudolf SCHUSTER 57%

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic
or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members are elected
on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
election results:  9.1%, SOP 8%; seats by party - governing coalition 93
(SDK 42, SDL 23, SMK 15, SOP 13), opposition 57 (HZDS 43, SNS 14); note
- seating as of January 2002 - governing coalition 90 (SDK 23, SDL 21,
SOP 16, SMK 15, KDH 9, DS 6), opposition 51 (HZDS 43, SNS 8), PSNS 6,
independents 3 elections: Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (judges are
elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed
by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council)

Political parties and leaders:  Christian Democratic Movement or KDH
[Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Democratic Party or DS [Ludovit KANIK]; Direction
(Smer) [Robert FICO]; Liberal Democratic Union or LDU [Jan BUDAJ];
Movement for a Democratic Slovakia-People's Party or HZDS-LS [Vladimir
MECIAR]; Party of Civic Understanding or SOP [Pavol HAMZIK]; note - SSDS
and SZS joined the SOP parliamentary caucus; Party of the Democratic
Left or SDL [Pvel KONCOS]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK
[Bela BUGAR]; Real Slovak National Party or PSNS [Jan SLOTA]; Slovak
Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU [Mikulas DZURINDA]; note - this
is DZURINDA's new party for the 2002 elections; he remains chairman of
a rump and splintering SDK; Slovak Democratic Coalition or SDK (loose
parliamentary club grouping, representing members of the smaller SSDS,
SZS, and those committed to run under SDKU in 2002) [Mikulas DZURINDA];
Slovak National Party or SNS [Anna MALIKOVA]; Yes (ANO) [Paval RUSKO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Association of Employers of
Slovakia; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of
Trade Unions or KOZ; Metal Workers Unions or KOVO and METALURG

International organization participation:  Australia Group, BIS, BSEC
(observer), CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA,
UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Martin
BUTORA chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX:
[1] (202) 237-6438 telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Ronald WEISER embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava telephone: [421] (2)
5443-3338 FAX: [421] (2) 5443-0096

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue,
and red superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the
hoist side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue

Economy Slovakia

Economy - overview:  Slovakia has mastered much of the difficult
transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market
economy. The DZURINDA government made excellent progress in 2001 in
macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. Major privatizations
are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost completely in foreign
hands, and foreign investment has picked up. Slovakia's economy exceeded
expectations in 2001, despite recession in key export markets. Revival
of domestic demand, partly due to a rise in real wages, offset slowing
export growth to help drive the economy to its strongest expansion since
1998. Solid domestic demand is expected to boost economic growth to 3.4%
in 2002, and about 4% in 2003. Unemployment, rising to 19.8% at the end
of 2001, remained the economy's Achilles' heel.  The government faces
other strong challenges in 2002, especially the maintenance of fiscal
balance ahead of the September 2002 parliamentary election, cutting
budget and current account deficits, and privatization of the Slovak
energy and power monopolies.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $62 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $11,500 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 4% industry: 32% services: 64%
(2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 5.1%
highest 10%: 18.2% (1992)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  26.3 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  7.4% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  3 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation:  industry 29.3%, agriculture 8.9%,
construction 8%, transport and communication 8.2%, services 45.6% (1994)

Unemployment rate:  19.8% (yearend 2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $5.2 billion expenditures: $5.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1999)

Industries:  metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity,
gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery;
paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles;
textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products

Industrial production growth rate:  4% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  27.53 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 35.34% hydro: 17.11%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 47.55%

Electricity - consumption:  25.203 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  4.9 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  4.5 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit;
pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Exports:  $12.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  machinery and transport equipment 39.4%,
intermediate manufactured goods 27.5%, miscellaneous manufactured goods
13%, chemicals 8% (1999)

Exports - partners:  EU 59.0% (Germany 26.8%, Italy 9.2%, Austria 8.4%),
Czech Republic 17.4% (2000)

Imports:  $14.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and transport equipment 37.7%,
intermediate manufactured goods 18%, fuels 13%, chemicals 11%,
miscellaneous manufactured goods 9.5% (1999)

Imports - partners:  EU 48.9% (Germany 25.1%, Italy 6.2%), Russia 17.0%,
Czech Republic 14.7% (2000)

Debt - external:  $7.8 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $421.9 million (1995)

Currency:  Slovak koruna (SKK)

Currency code:  SKK

Exchange rates:  koruny per US dollar - 47.792 (September 2001), 46.035
(2000), 41.363 (1999), 35.233 (1998), 33.616 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Slovakia

Telephones - main lines in use:  1,934,558 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  736,662 (April 1999)

Telephone system:  general assessment: a modernization and privatization
program is increasing accessibility to telephone service, reducing
the waiting time for new subscribers, and generally improving service
quality domestic:  and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable,
especially in the larger cities; mobile cellular capability has been
added international: three international exchanges (one in Bratislava
and two in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating
in several international telecommunications projects that will increase
the availability of external services

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 15, FM 78, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios:  3.12 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  38 (plus 864 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:  2.62 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .sk

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  6 (2000)

Internet users:  700,000 (2000)

Transportation Slovakia

Railways:  total: 3,660 km broad gauge: 102 km 1.520-m gauge narrow gauge:
51 km (46 km 1,000-m gauge; 5 km 0.750-m gauge) (2001) standard gauge:
3,507 km 1.435-m gauge (1,505 km electrified; 1,011 km double-tracked)

Highways:  total: 17,710 km paved: 17,533 km (including 288 km of
expressways) unpaved: 177 km (1998 est.)

Waterways:  172 km (all on the Danube)

Pipelines:  petroleum products NA km; natural gas 2,700 km

Ports and harbors:  Bratislava, Komarno

Merchant marine:  total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,191
GRT/19,489 DWT ships by type: cargo 3 (2002 est.)

Airports:  34 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 17 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047
m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 7 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 17 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 914 to
1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 7 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Slovakia

Military branches:  Army (Ground Forces), Air and Air Defense Forces,
Home Guards (Territorial Defense Forces), Civil Defense Force, Railway
Armed Forces (subordinate to the Ministry of Transportation, Post,
and Telecommunications)

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,486,728 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,136,775
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 45,502
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $406 million (2002)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.89% (2002)

Transnational Issues Slovakia

Disputes - international:  Slovakia requested additional ICJ judgment in
1998, and talks continue to set modalities to assure Hungarian compliance
with 1997 ICJ decision to proceed with construction of Gabcikovo-Nagymaros
Dam, abandoned by Hungary in 1989

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound
for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

Slovakia News
National News (in Slovak).
Radio Slovakia
With news in several languages.
Slovak News Agency.
The Slovak Spectator
International Weekly.
Slovakia Today
A monthly review of current events.
Slovenská Republika
National News (in Slovak).
National News.
News Agency of the Slovak Republic.

Arts & Culture
Museum SK
A guide to Museums and Galleries in Slovakia
National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library
Exhibit galleries filled with items that tell the story of the Czech and Slovak peoples.
Showcase the literary, artistic, and scholarly contributions of Slovaks and Slovak-Americans to the world.
Slovak Design Center
Non-profit, state-funded institution, active in the area of culture of SR since 1991.
Slovenske Narodne Muzeum
The Slovak National Museum.

Business & Economy
National Bank of Slovakia
Bratislava Stock Exchange

Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Slovak Investment and Trade Developement Agency

Destination Slovakia - Travel and Tour Guides

Official Web Site of the Slovak Tourist Board.

Slovakia Daily Surveyor
News and information from and about Slovakia.

A guide to the Slovac Republic.
Provides information about cities, regions, routes, accommodation and travel solutions.

Slovak Academy of Sciences (SAV)
Bratislava (Slovak).
Slovak Academy of Sciences
Slovak Technical University
Founded in 1938 , Bratislava.
University Comenius
CU was founded in 1919 and follows the university tradition of the Academia Istropolitana which was established in Bratislava by Matthias Corvinus, the Hungarian King, in 1465.

Slovak Academic Network
IP network infrastructure in Slovakia.

The National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library
Institution in the United States that preserves and interprets Czech and Slovak history and culture.
History of Slovakia
On the way to nationhood
The Slovak history.
Slovakias History in Brief

Travel and country related index.
Slovak Web




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