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Singapore Flag

Country Profile

Capital City: Singapore

Local Time: UTC +8h

Location: Southeast Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia.
Area: 597 sq km
Terrain: Lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve.

Climate: equatorial, a tropical rainforest climate; hot and humid.

Type: Parliamentary Republic.
Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)
Constitution: 3 June 1959, amended 1965 (based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution)

Nationality: noun: Singaporean(s), adjective: Singapore
Population: 4.4 million
GNI per capita PPP: int'l $ 28 228 Ethnic Groups: Chinese 77%, Malay 14%, Indian 8% Religions: Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist. Languages: PuTongHua (Mandarin Chinese, official), Malay (official and national), Tamil (official), English (official)
Literacy: 93%


Currency: Singapore Dollar (S$, SGD)

Natural resources: Fish, deepwater ports.

Agriculture - products: Rubber, copra, fruit, orchids, vegetables, poultry, eggs, fish, ornamental fish.

Industries: Electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade.

Exports partners:
Malaysia 15.8%, USA 14.3%, Hong Kong 10%, China 7%, Japan 6.7%, Taiwan 4.7%, Thailand 4.3%, South Korea 4.2% (2003)

Imports partners: Malaysia 16.8%, USA 14.1%, Japan 12%, China 8.7%, Taiwan 5.1%, Thailand 4.3% (2003)

Internet Links

Official Sites

Prime Minister's Office

Istana Singapore

The Cabinet

The Parliament

SINGOV: Singapore Government Online Portal

Singapore Government Directory interactive (SGDI)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA)

Diplomatic Missions
Embassy of Singapore to the U.S.

Embassy of Singapore in Germany

Singapore Missions Worldwide

Foreign Missions Accredited to Singapore

Visa & Entry Facilities

Statistics on Singapore

Map of Singapore

Singapore City map



Background:  Founded as a British trading colony in 1819, Singapore joined
Malaysia in 1963, but withdrew two years later and became independent. It
subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries, with
strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's
busiest) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations
of Western Europe.

Geography Singapore

Location:  Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia

Geographic coordinates:  1 22 N, 103 48 E

Map references:  Southeast Asia

Area:  total: 692.7 sq km water: 10 sq km land: 682.7 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington,

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  193 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial
sea, as defined in treaties and practice territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate:  tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons -
Northeastern monsoon from December to March and Southwestern monsoon
from June to September; inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early
evening thunderstorms

Terrain:  lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water
catchment area and nature preserve

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m highest point:
Bukit Timah 166 m

Natural resources:  fish, deepwater ports

Land use:  arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% other: 98% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  NA

Environment - current issues:  industrial pollution; limited natural
fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal
problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed,
but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

People Singapore

Population:  4,452,732 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 17.6% (male 404,212; female 378,660) 15-64
years: 75.3% (male 1,630,696; female 1,724,532) 65 years and over: 7.1%
(male 137,512; female 177,120) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  3.46% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  12.78 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  4.28 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  26.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.78 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  3.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   83.47 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.23 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.19% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  4,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  210 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Singaporean(s) adjective: Singapore

Ethnic groups:  Chinese 76.7%, Malay 14%, Indian 7.9%, other 1.4%

Religions:  Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu, Sikh,
Taoist, Confucianist

Languages:  Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil
(official), English (official)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 93.5% male: 97% female: 89.8% (1999)

Government Singapore

Country name:   Republic of Singapore conventional short form: Government
type:  parliamentary republic

Capital:  Singapore

Administrative divisions:  none

Independence:  9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 9 August (1965)

Constitution:  3 June 1959, amended 1965 (based on preindependence State
of Singapore Constitution)

Legal system:  based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  21 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Sellapan Rama
(S. R.) NATHAN (since 1 September 1999) head of government: Prime
Minister Chok Tong GOH (since 28 November 1990) and Deputy Prime
Ministers Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Hsien Loong LEE (since 28 November 1990)
and Keng Yam Tony TAN (since 1 August 1995) cabinet:  president elected
by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 28 August 1999
(next to be held by August 2005); following legislative elections,
the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition
is usually appointed prime minister by the president; deputy prime
ministers appointed by the president election results: Sellapan Rama
(S. R.) NATHAN elected president unopposed

Legislative branch:  unicameral Parliament (84 seats; members elected
by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - in addition, there
are up to nine nominated members; the losing opposition candidate who
came closet to winning a seat may be appointed as a "nonconstituency"
member elections: last held 3 November 2001 (next to be held 25 June 2007)
election results:  other 24.7%; seats by party - PAP 82, WP 1, SDA 1

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the
president with the advice of the prime minister, other judges are
appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice); Court
of Appeals

Political parties and leaders:  Democratic Progressive Party or DPP
[leader NA]; People's Action Party or PAP [Chok Tong GOH, secretary
general] - the governing party; Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA
[CHIAM See Tong] (includes Singapore People's Party or SPP [CHIAM See
Tong], Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan], National
Solidarity Party [leader NA], Singapore Justice Party [leader NA], and
Singapore Malay National Organization [leader NA]); Workers' Party or WP

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN,
UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Heng
Chee CHAN consulate(s): New York consulate(s) general: San Francisco
FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876 telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100 chancery: 3501
International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Franklin L. LAVIN embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508 mailing
address: PSC Box 470, FPO AP 96534-0001 telephone: [65] 476-9100 FAX:
[65] 476-9340

Flag description:  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white;
near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent
(closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white
five-pointed stars arranged in a circle

Economy Singapore

Economy - overview:  Singapore, a highly developed and successful
free-market economy, enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free
environment, stable prices, and one of the highest per capita GDPs in the
world. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in electronics
and manufacturing, and was hard hit in 2001 by the global recession and
the slump in the technology sector. In 2001, GDP contracted by 2.2%. The
economy is expected to recover in 2002 in response to improvements
in the US economy, and GDP growth for 2002 is projected to be 3% to
4%. In the longer term the government hopes to establish a new growth
path that will be less vulnerable to the external business cycle than
the current export-led model, but is unlikely to abandon efforts to
establish Singapore as Southeast Asia's financial and high-tech hub.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $106.3 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  -2.2% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $24,700 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: NEGL% industry: 33% services:
67% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  1.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  2.19 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:  financial, business, and other services 35%,
manufacturing 21%, construction 13%, transportation and communication 9%,
other 22%

Unemployment rate:  4.7% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $27.9 billion expenditures: $19.5 billion, including
capital expenditures of $5.4 billion (FY00/01 est.)

Industries:  electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling
equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products,
processed food and beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate:  -17.5% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  27.9 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  25.947 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  rubber, copra, fruit, orchids, vegetables;
poultry, eggs, fish, ornamental fish

Exports:  $122 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  machinery and equipment (including electronics),
consumer goods, chemicals, mineral fuels

Exports - partners:  Malaysia 18%, US 17%, Hong Kong 8%, Japan 7.5%,
Taiwan 6%, Thailand 4.3%, China 4%, South Korea 3.6%, Germany 3%,
Netherlands 3% (2000)

Imports:  $116 billion (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals,

Imports - partners:  Japan 17%, Malaysia 17%, US 15%, China 5%, Taiwan
4.4%, Thailand 4.3%, South Korea 3.6%, Saudi Arabia 3% (2000)

Debt - external:  $8.3 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $NA

Currency:  Singapore dollar (SGD)

Currency code:  SGD

Exchange rates:  Singapore dollars per US dollar - 1.8388 (January 2002),
1.7917 (2001), 1.7240 (2000), 1.6950 (1999), 1.6736 (1998), 1.4848 (1997)

Fiscal year:  1 April - 31 March

Communications Singapore

Telephones - main lines in use:  1.95 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  2.74 million (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: major consideration given to
serving business interests; excellent international service domestic:
excellent domestic facilities international: submarine cables to Malaysia
(Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite
earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean), and
1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 0, FM 16, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios:  2.6 million (2000)

Television broadcast stations:  6 (2000)

Televisions:  1.33 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .sg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  9 (2000)

Internet users:  2.12 million (2001)

Transportation Singapore

Railways:  total: 38.6 km narrow gauge: 38.6 km 1.000-m gauge note:
there is also a 83 km mass transit system with 48 stations

Highways:   3,066 km (including 150 km of expressways) unpaved:
Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Singapore

Merchant marine:  total: 876 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,686,612
GRT/32,647,743 DWT ships by type: bulk 131, cargo 100, chemical tanker
81, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 6, container 168, liquefied
gas 35, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 1,
petroleum tanker 287, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 5, short-sea
passenger 1, specialized tanker 11, vehicle carrier 32 note: includes
some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience:
Kong 44, Indonesia 8, Japan 52, Malaysia 4, Monaco 22, Netherlands 2,
Norway 42, Philippines 6, Russia 3, Slovenia 1, South Korea 10, Sweden 13,
Switzerland 7, Taiwan 46, Tanzania 2, Thailand 22, United Arab Emirates 4,
United Kingdom 14, United States 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  9 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 9 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m:
1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Military Singapore

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force,
Police Force

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,354,857 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 986,101
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $4.47 billion (FY01/02 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  4.9% (FY01/02)

Transnational Issues Singapore

Disputes - international:  Singapore and Malaysia are considering taking
the unresolved dispute over Pulau Batu Putih (Pedra Branca Island)
to ICJ; Malaysia concerned over Singapore's land reclamation works on
Johor, which affects the maritime boundary, shipping lanes, and water
ecology in the Tebrau Reach

Illicit drugs:  as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore
is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, to use as a transit
point for Golden Triangle heroin and as a venue for money laundering

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002
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