World Online Education - World Portal : International Online Education Portal
Worldwide Online Education
International Online Education Portal
Learn About the World's Online Business, Education, Economy, Politics, Culture, Religion, Media and More









Sao Tome and Principe
Online Business Education. Economy. Politics. Culture. Religion. Media

Capital City: São Tomé

Internet Links

UN House in São Tome and Principe

São Tomé e Principe Homepage

Sao Tome and Principe



Sao Tome and Principe

Background:  Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century,
the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the
19th century - all grown with plantation slave labor, a form of which
lingered into the 20th century. Although independence was achieved in
1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The
first free elections were held in 1991.

Geography Sao Tome and Principe

Location:  Western Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling
the Equator, west of Gabon

Geographic coordinates:  1 00 N, 7 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 1,001 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 1,001 sq km

Area - comparative:  more than five times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  209 km

Maritime claims:  measured from claimed archipelagic baselines territorial
sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)

Terrain:  volcanic, mountainous

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Pico de Sao Tome 2,024 m

Natural resources:  fish, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 2% permanent crops: 41% other: 57% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  100 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  NA

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not
ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  the smallest country in Africa; the two main islands
form part of a chain of extinct volcanoes and both are fairly mountainous

People Sao Tome and Principe

Population:  170,372 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 47.7% (male 41,159; female 40,125) 15-64
years: 48.3% (male 39,701; female 42,586) 65 years and over: 4% (male
3,115; female 3,686) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  3.18% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  42.3 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.32 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -3.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.85 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  47.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   67.45 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  5.95 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Sao Tomean(s) adjective: Sao Tomean

Ethnic groups:  mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros
(descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola,
Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the
islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)

Religions:  Christian 80% (Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant,
Seventh-Day Adventist)

Languages:  Portuguese (official)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 79.3% male: 85% female: 62% (1991 est.)

Government Sao Tome and Principe

Country name:  conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome
and Principe conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe local short
form: Sao Tome e Principe local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao
Tome e Principe

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Sao Tome

Administrative divisions:  2 provinces; Principe, Sao Tome note: Principe
has had self-government since 29 April 1995

Independence:  12 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 12 July (1975)

Constitution:  approved March 1990; effective 10 September 1990

Legal system:  based on Portuguese legal system and customary law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Fradique DE MENEZES (since 3
September 2001) election results: Fradique DE MENEZES elected president in
Sao Tome's third multiparty presidential election; percent of vote - NA%
elections:  29 July 2001 (next to be held NA July 2006); prime minister
chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president head of
government:  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
on the proposal of the prime minister

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional
(55 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year
terms) elections:  percent of vote by party - MLSTP 39.6%, Force for
Change Democratic Movement 39.4%, Ue-Kedadji coalition 16.2%; seats by
party - MLSTP 24, Force for Change Democratic Movement 23, Ue-Kedadji
coalition 8

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the National

Political parties and leaders:  Democratic Renovation Party [Armindo
GRACA]; Force for Change Democratic Movement [leader NA]; Independent
Democratic Action or ADI [Carlos NEVES]; Movement for the Liberation
of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Manuel
Pinto Da COSTA]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Aldo BANDEIRA];
Ue-Kedadji coalition [leader NA]; other small parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEEAC,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  Sao Tome and Principe does not
have an embassy in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the UN,
headed by First Secretary Domingos Augusto FERREIRA, located at 400 Park
Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10022, telephone [1] (212) 317-0580

Diplomatic representation from the US:  the US does not have an embassy
in Sao Tome and Principe; the Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao
Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to
the islands

Flag description:  three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double
width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side
in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on
the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy Sao Tome and Principe

Economy - overview:  This small poor island economy has become
increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence 26 years ago. However,
cocoa production has substantially declined because of drought and
mismanagement. The resulting shortage of cocoa for export has created a
persistent balance-of-payments problem. Sao Tome has to import all fuels,
most manufactured goods, consumer goods, and a substantial amount of
food. Over the years, it has been unable to service its external debt
and has had to depend on concessional aid and debt rescheduling. Sao
Tome benefited from $200 million in debt relief in December 2000 under
the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program. Sao Tome's success in
implementing structural reforms has been rewarded by international donors,
who have pledged increased assistance in 2001. Considerable potential
exists for development of a tourist industry, and the government has
taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The government also
has attempted to reduce price controls and subsidies. Sao Tome is also
optimistic that substantial petroleum discoveries are forthcoming in
its territorial waters in the oil-rich waters of the Gulf of Guinea.
Corruption scandals continue to weaken the economy.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $189 million (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,200 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 25% industry: 10% services:
65% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  7% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  NA

Labor force - by occupation:  population mainly engaged in subsistence
agriculture and fishing note: Unemployment rate:  NA%

Budget:  revenues: $58 million expenditures: $114 million, including
capital expenditures of $54 million (1993 est.)

Industries:  light construction, textiles, soap, beer; fish processing;

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  17 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 41.18% hydro: 58.82%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  15.81 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, copra, cinnamon,
pepper, coffee, bananas, papayas, beans; poultry; fish

Exports:  $4.1 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:  cocoa 90%, copra, coffee, palm oil

Exports - partners:  Portugal 33.3%, Netherlands 8.3%, Spain 8.3% (1999)

Imports:  $40 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and electrical equipment, food products,
petroleum products

Imports - partners:  Portugal 43%, France 15.7%, UK 13.7% (1999)

Debt - external:  $253.8 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:  $200 million in December 2000 under the
HIPC program

Currency:  dobra (STD)

Currency code:  STD

Exchange rates:  dobras per US dollar - 9,009.1 (December 2001), 8,842.1
(2001), 7,978.2 (2000), 7,119.0 (1999), 6,883.2 (1998), 4,552.5 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Sao Tome and Principe

Telephones - main lines in use:  3,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  6,942 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: adequate facilities domestic:
minimal system international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  38,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  2 (1997)

Televisions:  23,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .st

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (2000)

Internet users:  6,500 (2001)

Transportation Sao Tome and Principe

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 320 km paved: 218 km unpaved: 102 km (1996)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Santo Antonio, Sao Tome

Merchant marine:  total: 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 169,991
GRT/245,996 DWT ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 23, chemical tanker 1,
container 3, livestock carrier 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated
cargo 1, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 1 note: includes some
foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Egypt 1,
Greece 1, Kenya 1, Portugal 1, Syria 1, Turkey 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  2 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to
1,523 m: 1 (2001)

Military Sao Tome and Principe

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Security Police

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 35,524 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 18,727
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $400,000 (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  0.8% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Sao Tome and Principe

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002




Education Resources

Natural Stone Veneer
Stone Directory

Las Vegas Graphics & Web Design
Las Vegas Graphic & Web Design
Graphic Design & Web Design in Las Vegas

Dentures. Complete Dentures. Partial Dentures.
 Complete Dentures
 Partial Dentures

Leadership Courses & Management Courses in Las Vegas USA
Management Training Courses in Las Vegas USA
Leadership Training & Management Courses in Las Vegas

Management  Best Practices
Management Best Practices

Management Consulting Courses
Management Consulting Courses

Management Training Courses
Management Training Courses

Business School Online
Online Business Schools

Open Courseware
Free Open Courses

Online Business Courses
Business Schools Online

Business Management Courses
Business Management Courses

CEO Magazine
CEO Magazine

CEO Library
CEO Library

CEO Club
Executive Networking

CEO Books
CEO Books

MBA Review
Review of MBA Programs

Best MBA
Ranking of World's Best MBA Programs

MBA distance Learning
Online MBA

Top Ranking MBA
Ranking of Top MBA Programs

Online Executive MBA
Online Executive MBA Programs

Accelerated MBA
Accelerated MBA Programs

Las Vegas Web Design
Las Vegas Web Design