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Flag of Romania

Capital City: Bucuresti (Bucharest)

Border countries: Bulgaria, Hungary, Moldova, Serbia and Montenegro, Ukraine

Official Sites of Romania

Presedintia Romāniei

Guvernul Romāniei


Ministerul Afacerilor Externe (MAE)

Embassy of Romania

C.N. Institutul National de Meteorologie Hidrologie si Gospodarire a Apelor (INMH)

Map of Romania



Background:  Soviet occupation following World War II led to the
formation of a Communist "peoples republic" in 1947 and the abdication
of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU
and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and
draconian through the 1980s.  CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed
in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996
when they were swept from power by a fractious coalition of center-right
parties. Today the Communist Party, renamed the Party of Social Democracy,
rules in cooperation with the ethnic Hungarian minority rights party.
Much economic restructuring remains to be carried out before Romania
can achieve its hope of joining the EU.

Geography Romania

Location:  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria
and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates:  46 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 237,500 sq km land: 230,340 sq km water: 7,160 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:  total: 2,508 km border countries: Bulgaria 608 km,
Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Yugoslavia 476 km, Ukraine (north)
362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km

Coastline:  225 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive
economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog;
sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain:  central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of
Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the
Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Moldoveanu
2,544 m

Natural resources:  petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas,
coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 41% permanent crops: 2% other: 57% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  28,800 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest;
geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Environment - current issues:  soil erosion and degradation; water
pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination
of Danube delta wetlands

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography - note:  controls most easily traversable land route between
the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine

People Romania

Population:  22,317,730 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:   17.4% (male 1,992,505; female 1,898,122) 15-64 years:
(male 1,274,881; female 1,807,121) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  -0.21% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  10.81 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  12.27 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.71 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  18.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   74.39 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.35 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  7,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  350 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Romanian(s) adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups:  Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 7.1%, Roma 1.8%, German 0.5%,
Ukrainian 0.3%, other 0.8% (1992)

Religions:  Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6%, Protestant 6%,
unaffiliated 18%

Languages:  Romanian, Hungarian, German

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 97% male: 98% female: 95% (1992 est.)

Government Romania

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Romania local short form: Romania local long form: none

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Bucharest

Administrative divisions:  41 counties (judete, singular - judet)
and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor,
Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi,
Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj,
Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti,
Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman,
Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Independence:  9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from Turkey;
independence recognized 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin; kingdom
proclaimed 26 March 1881; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

National holiday:  Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania),
1 December (1918)

Constitution:  8 December 1991

Legal system:  former mixture of civil law system and communist legal
theory; is now based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:   President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 December 2000)
elections:  held 26 November 2000, with runoff between the top two
candidates held 10 December 2000 (next to be held NA November/December
2004); prime minister appointed by the president head of government:
Prime Minister Adrian NASTASE (since 29 December 2000) cabinet: Council
of Ministers appointed by the prime minister election results: percent
of vote - Ion ILIESCU 66.84%, Corneliu Vadim TUDOR 33.16%

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the
Senate or Senat (140 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote
on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and
the Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea Deputatilor (345 seats; members are
elected by direct, popular vote on a proportional representation basis
to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate - last held 26 November 2000
(next to be held in the fall of 2004); Chamber of Deputies - last held
26 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2004) election results:
PNL 7.5%, UDMR 6.9%; seats by party - PDSR 65, PRM 37, PD 13, PNL 13,
UDMR 12; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PDSR 36.6%,
PRM 19.5%, PD 7.0%, PNL, 6.9%, UDMR 6.8%; seats by party - PDSR 155,
PRM 84, PD 31, PNL 30, UDMR 27, ethnic minorities 18

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the
president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates)

Political parties and leaders:  Democratic Party or PD [Traian BASESCU];
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National
Liberal Party or PNL [Valeriu STOICA]; Party of Social Democracy or PSD
[Adrian NASTASE]; note - used to be known as the Party of Social Democracy
in Romania or PDSR; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM
[Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  various human rights and
professional associations

International organization participation:  ACCT, Australia Group, BIS,
BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MONUC, NAM (guest),
UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU,

Diplomatic representation in the US:   Ambassador Sorin Dumitru DUCARU
consulate(s) general:  [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851 chancery: 1607
23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Michael GUEST embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest mailing
address: American Embassy Bucharest, Department of State, Washington,
DC 20521-5260 (pouch) telephone: [40] (1) 210 40 42 FAX: [40] (1) 210
03 95 branch office(s): Cluj-Napoca

Flag description:  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered
in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flag of Chad,
also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

Economy Romania

Economy - overview:  Romania, one of the poorest countries of Central
and Eastern Europe, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a
largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the
country's needs. Over the past decade economic restructuring has lagged
behind most other countries in the region. Consequently, living standards
have continued to fall - real wages are down perhaps 40%.  The country
emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong
demand in EU export markets, and despite the global slowdown in 2001,
strong domestic activity in construction, agriculture, and consumption
led to 4.8% growth. A standby agreement with the IMF - covering the
period October 2001 to March 2003 - provides a key opportunity for
vigorous privatization, regulatory reform, deficit reduction, and the
curbing of inflation.  The government in the past has not been able to
fully implement IMF agreements; its degree of success in this case will
affect prospects for joining the EU.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $152.7 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4.8% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $6,800 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 15% industry: 30% services:
55% (2000)

Population below poverty line:  44.5% (2000)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 22.7% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  30.5 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  34.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  9.9 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 40%, industry 25%, services 35%

Unemployment rate:  9.1% (2001)

Budget:  revenues: $11.7 billion expenditures: $12.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries:  textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly,
mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food
processing, petroleum refining

Industrial production growth rate:  6.5% (2001)

Electricity - production:  49.787 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 52.58% hydro: 36.92%
other: 0.01% (2000) nuclear: 10.49%

Electricity - consumption:  45.677 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  1.4 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  775 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed,
potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep

Exports:  $11.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  textiles and footwear 26%, metals and metal
products 15%, machinery and equipment 11%, minerals and fuels 6% (1999)

Exports - partners:  Italy 22%, Germany 16%, France 7%, Turkey 6%, US

Imports:  $14.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment 23%, fuels and minerals
12%, chemicals 9%, textile and products 19% (1999)

Imports - partners:  Italy 19%, Germany 15%, Russia 9%, France 6% (2000)

Debt - external:  $11.6 billion (2001 est.)

Currency:  leu (ROL)

Currency code:  ROL

Exchange rates:  lei per US dollar - 35,052.0 (January 2002), 29,060.8
(2001), 21,708.7 (2000), 15,332.8 (1999), 8,875.6 (1998), 7,167.9 (1997);
note - lei is the plural form of leu

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Romania

Telephones - main lines in use:  3.777 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  645,500 (1999)

Telephone system:  general assessment: poor domestic service, but
improving domestic: 90% of telephone network is automatic; trunk network
is mostly microwave radio relay, with some fiber-optic cable; about
one-third of exchange capacity is digital; roughly 3,300 villages have
no service international:  direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest;
note - Romania is an active participant in several international
telecommunication network projects (1999)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 40, FM 202, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios:  7.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  48 (plus 392 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:  5.25 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .ro

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  38 (2000)

Internet users:  800,000 (2001)

Transportation Romania

Railways:  total: 11,385 km (3,888 km electrified) standard gauge:
10,898 km
 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2001) broad gage:
Highways:  total: 153,359 km paved: 103,671 km (including 133 km of
expressways) unpaved: 49,688 km (1998 est.)

Waterways:  1,724 km (1984)

Pipelines:  crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural
gas 6,400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors:  Braila, Constanta, Galati, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea

Merchant marine:  total: 70 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 561,470
GRT/754,836 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here
as a flag of convenience: Greece 1, Italy 5 (2002 est.)  ships by type:
bulk 11, cargo 47, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4,
railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 4

Airports:  61 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 24 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047
m: 9 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 37 under 914 m: 23 (2001)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 12

Heliports:  2 (2001)

Military Romania

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (AMR),
Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age:  20 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 5,906,601 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 4,970,496
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 179,951
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $985 million (2002)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.47% (2002)

Transnational Issues Romania

Disputes - international:  Romania and Ukraine have yet to resolve claims
over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and delimitation
of Black Sea maritime boundary, despite 1997 bilateral treaty to find
a solution in two years and numerous talks; because of a shift in the
Danube course since the last correction of the boundary in 1920, a joint
Bulgarian-Romanian team will recommend sovereignty changes to several
islands and redefine the boundary

Illicit drugs:  major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine
bound for Western Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

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