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Flag of Portugal

Country Profile

Capital City: Lisboa (Lisbon) (metropolitan area pop. 1.9 million)

Other Cities: Faro, Porto (Oporto, metro. area 1.7 million).

Local Time: UTC 0h

Location: Southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain.
Area: 92 142 sq. km., including the Azores and Madeira Islands.
Terrain: Mountainous in the north; rolling plains in the central south.
Border countries: Spain

Climate: Maritime temperate, average annual temperature is 16°C (61°F)

Founding of the Portuguese State: 1143
Founding of the Republic: 1910
Government type: Republic ruled by a Constitution.
Constitution: Effective 25 April 1976; revised 30 October 1982, 1 June 1989, 25 November 1992, and 3 September 1997.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Portuguese (singular and plural).
Population (2002): 10.2 million.
Ethnic groups: Homogeneous Mediterranean stock with small black African and Eastern European minorities.
Religion: Roman Catholic, 97%.
Language: Portuguese; of Latin origin, Portuguese is one of the most widely spoken European language in the world and is mother tongue to about 200 million people.
Literacy: (2004 est.) 94%


Currency: Euro (EUR)

Natural resources: Fish, tungsten, iron, copper, tin, and uranium ores. Agriculture: Products--forestry, fisheries, cork, wine.

Agriculture products: Grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, beef, dairy products.

Industries: Textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism.

Exports partners:
Spain 22.7%, Germany 15.2%, France 12.9%, UK 10.5%, USA 5.8%, Italy 4.8%, Belgium 4.6% (2003)

Imports partners: Spain 29.1%, Germany 14.7%, France 9.9%, Italy 6.4%, UK 4.9%, Netherlands 4.6% (2003)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Portugal

Casa Real Portuguesa

Presidency of the Republic

Assembleia da República

Portal do Governo

Portal do Cidadão

Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations

Embassy of Portugal

Missions of Portugal abroad

Foreign Missions in Portugal

Instituto Nacional de Estatística Portugal

Instituto de Meteorologia Português

Map of Portugal



Background:  Following its heyday as a world power during the 15th
and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with
the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the
Napoleonic Wars, and the independence in 1822 of Brazil as a colony. A
1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades
repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military
coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year Portugal
granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal entered
the EC (now the EU)in 1985.

Geography Portugal

Location:  Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
west of Spain

Geographic coordinates:  39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 92,391 sq km land: 91,951 sq km note: includes Azores and
Madeira Islands water: 440 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:  total: 1,214 km border countries: Spain 1,214 km

Coastline:  1,793 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive
economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier
in south

Terrain:  mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point:
Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources:  fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium ore,
marble, arable land, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 22% permanent crops: 8% other: 70% (1999 est.)

Irrigated land:  6,320 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  Azores subject to severe earthquakes

Environment - current issues:  soil erosion; air pollution caused
by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in
coastal areas

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed,
but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification,
Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note:  Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations
along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

People Portugal

Population:  10,084,245 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 16.9% (male 875,485; female 827,670) 15-64
years: 67.3% (male 3,324,215; female 3,463,301) 65 years and over: 15.8%
(male 644,761; female 948,813) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.18% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  11.5 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  10.21 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.68 male(s)/female total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  5.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   79.87 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.48 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.74% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  36,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  280 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Portuguese (singular and plural) adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups:  homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black
African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number
less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal

Religions:  Roman Catholic 94%, Protestant (1995)

Languages:  Portuguese

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 87.4% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Portugal

Country name:   Portuguese Republic conventional short form: Government
type:  parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Lisbon

Administrative divisions:  18 districts (distritos, singular -
distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular -
regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca,
Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*,
Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

Independence:  1143 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)

National holiday:  Portugal Day, 10 June (1580)

Constitution:  25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982, 1 June 1989,
5 November 1992, and 3 September 1997

Legal system:  civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the
constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:   President Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 March 1996) note:
the president head of government: Prime Minister Jose Manuel DURAO
Barroso (since 6 April 2002) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by
the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections:
held 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA January 2006); following
legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a
majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Jorge SAMPAIO reelected president; percent of vote -
Jorge SAMPAIO (Socialist) 55.8%, Joaquim FERREIRA Do Amaral (Social
Democrat) 34.5%, Antonio ABREU (Communist) 5.1%

Legislative branch:  unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia
da Republica (230 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms) elections:  percent of vote by party - PSD 40.1%,
PS 37.8%, PP 8.7%, PCP/PEV 6.9%, The Left Bloc 2.7%; seats by party -
PSD 105, PS 96, PP 14, PCP/PEV 12, The Left Bloc 3

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (judges
appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura)

Political parties and leaders:  The Greens or PEV [no leader]; Popular
Party or PP [Paulo PORTAS]; Portuguese Communist Party/The Greens or
PCP/PEV [Carlos CARVALHAS]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Eduardo
Ferro RODRIGUES]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Jose Manuel DURAO
Barroso]; United Democratic Coalition or CDU [leader NA]; The Left Bloc
[no leader]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  AfDB, Australia Group, BIS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO,
NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Joao Alberto Bacelar ROCHA PARIS consulate(s): Los Angeles, New Bedford
(Massachusetts), Providence (Rhode Island) consulate(s) general: Boston,
New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San Francisco FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610 chancery: 2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington,
DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate John N. PALMER embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas,
1600-081 Lisbon mailing address: PSC 83, APO AE 09726
 [351] (21) 727-9109 consulate(s):
Flag description:  two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths)
and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the
dividing line

Economy Portugal

Economy - overview:  Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly
service-based economy since joining the European Community in
1986. Over the past decade, successive governments have privatized many
state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including
the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for
the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating its new
currency, the euro, on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU member
economies. Economic growth has been above the EU average for much of
the past decade, but GDP per capita stands at just 75% of that of the
leading EU economies. The government has failed to reign in a widening
deficit and to advance structural reforms needed to boost Portugal's
economic competitiveness. A poor educational system, in particular, has
been an obstacle to greater productivity and growth. Portugal has been
increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and
Asia as a target for foreign direct investment.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $174.1 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  1.7% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $17,300 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 3.8% industry: 30.5% services:
65.7% (2000)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  35.6 (1994-95)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  4.4% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  5.1 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 60%, industry 30%, agriculture 10%
(1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:  4.4% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $45 billion expenditures: $48 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork;
metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:  2.4% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  43.242 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 70.03% hydro: 25.91%
other: 4.06% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  41.146 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  3.767 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  4.698 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle,
goats, poultry, beef, dairy products

Exports:  $24.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  clothing and footwear, machinery, chemicals,
cork and paper products, hides

Exports - partners:  EU 79% (Spain 19%, Germany 18%, France 13%, UK 11%,
Benelux 6%), US 6% (2000)

Imports:  $37.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and transport equipment, chemicals,
petroleum, textiles, agricultural products

Imports - partners:  EU 74% (Spain 25%, Germany 14%, France 11%, Italy
7%, UK 6%), US 3%, Japan 3% (2000)

Debt - external:  $13.1 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid - donor:  ODA, $271 million (1995)

Currency:  euro (EUR); Portuguese escudo (PTE) note: on 1 January 1999,
the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to
be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002,
the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the
member countries

Currency code:  EUR; PTE

Exchange rates:  euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175
(2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Portuguese escudos per US dollar -
180.10 (1998), 175.31 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Portugal

Telephones - main lines in use:  5.3 million (yearend 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  3,074,194 (1999)

Telephone system:  general assessment: undergoing rapid development in
recent years, Portugal's telephone system, by the end of 1998, achieved
a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities and a
main line telephone density of 53% domestic: integrated network of coaxial
cables, open wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth
stations international: 6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3
Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric
scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean
region) is planned

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 47, FM 172 (many are repeaters), shortwave 2

Radios:  3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  62 (plus 166 repeaters) note: includes
Azores and Madeira Islands (1995)

Televisions:  3.31 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .pt

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  16 (2000)

Internet users:  2 million (2001)

Transportation Portugal

Railways:  total: 2,850 km broad gauge: 2,576 km 1.668-m gauge (623 km
electrified; 426 km double-tracked) narrow gauge: 274 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:  total: 68,732 km paved: 59,110 km (including 797 km of
expressways) unpaved: 9,622 km (1999)

Waterways:  820 km note: relatively unimportant to national economy, used
by shallow-draft craft limited to 300 metric-ton or less cargo capacity

Pipelines:  crude oil 22 km; petroleum products 58 km; natural gas 700
km note:  long have not yet been built

Ports and harbors:  Aveiro, Funchal (Madeira Islands), Horta (Azores),
Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Praia da Vitoria (Azores),
Setubal, Viana do Castelo

Merchant marine:  total: 140 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,001,440
GRT/1,519,701 DWT ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 71, chemical tanker 17,
container 10, liquefied gas 8, multi-functional large-load carrier 1,
petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 6, short-sea
passenger 4, vehicle carrier 2 note: includes some foreign-owned
ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 1, British
Virgin Islands 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 6, Germany 20, Greece 1, Iceland 1,
Italy 16, Lebanon 1, Liberia 1, Monaco 2, Norway 5, Panama 5, Spain 22,
Switzerland 8, United Kingdom 1, Virgin Islands (UK) 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  67 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 40 over 3,047 m: 5 2,438 to 3,047
m: 9 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 14 under 914 m: 7 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 27 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m:
26 (2001)

Military Portugal

Military branches:  Army, Navy (PON) (includes Marines), Air Force,
Republican Guard (includes Fiscal Guard)

Military manpower - military age:  20 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,525,848 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 2,024,526
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 71,404
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $1.286 billion (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.2% (FY99/00)

Transnational Issues Portugal

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  gateway country for Latin American cocaine and Southwest
Asian heroin entering the European market; transshipment point for
hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

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