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Flag of Peru

Country Profile

Capital City: Lima The Lima/Callao metropolitan area has a population of 8.27 million. (2000)

Other Cities: Arequipa, Trujillo.

Local Time: UTC -5h

Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador.
Area: 1.28 million sq. km. (496,225 sq. mi.);
third-largest country in South America.
Terrain: Varies widely between western coastal plains, central Andean highlands, and eastern tropical lowlands in Amazon Basin.
Border countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador

Climate: Arid and mild in coastal area, temperate to frigid in the Andes, and warm and humid in jungle lowlands.

Type: Constitutional republic.
Independence: 28 July 1821.
Constitution: 31 December 1993.

Nationality: Peruvian(s).
Population: 27.9 million.
Ethnic groups: Indigenous (45%), mestizo (37%), European (15%), African, Japanese, Chinese, and other (3%).
Religion: Roman Catholic (90%).
Languages: Spanish is the principal language. Quechua, Aymara and other indigenous languages also have official status.
Literacy: 95% in urban areas, 77% in rural areas.


Currency: Nuevo Sol (PEN)

Natural resources: Copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas.

Agriculture products: Coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish.

Industries: Mining and refining of minerals and metals, petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas, fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing, steel, metal fabrication.

Exports partners:
USA 29.5%, China 9.8%, UK 8%, Chile 5.3%, Japan 4.7%, Switzerland 4.4% (2004)

Imports partners: USA 29.2%, Spain 8.5%, Chile 6.9%, Brazil 5.6%, Colombia 5.2%, China 4% (2004)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Peru

Congreso de la República del Perú

Ministerio de Comercio Exterior y Turismo

Peru Online

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores

Diplomatic Missions
Embajada del Perú

Peru's Diplomatic Missions Abroad

Foreign Diplomatic Missions in Peru

Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática

Map of Peru

Map of Peru

Map of South America



Background:  Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean
civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by
the Spanish conquistadores in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared
in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen
years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in
1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent
insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in
a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant
progress in curtailing guerrilla activity.  Nevertheless, the president's
increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the
late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime. FUJIMORI
won reelection to a third term in the spring of 2000, but international
pressure and corruption scandals led to his ouster by Congress in November
of that year. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring
of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government.

Geography Peru

Location:  Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean,
between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates:  10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map references:  South America

Area:  total: 1,285,220 sq km water: 5,220 sq km land: 1.28 million sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:  total: 5,536 km border countries: Bolivia 900 km,
Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline:  2,414 km

Maritime claims:  continental shelf: 200 NM territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate:  varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate
to frigid in Andes

Terrain:  western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center
(sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point:
Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources:  copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish,
iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas

Land use:  arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% other: 97% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  11,950 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild
volcanic activity

Environment - current issues:  deforestation (some the result of illegal
logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading
to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of
rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:  shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest
navigable lake, with Bolivia; remote Lake McIntyre is the ultimate source
of the Amazon River

People Peru

Population:  27,949,639 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 34% (male 4,820,892; female 4,671,205) 15-64
years: 61.1% (male 8,598,328; female 8,492,830) 65 years and over: 4.9%
(male 627,601; female 738,783) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.66% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  23.36 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  5.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.85 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  38.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   73.12 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.89 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.35% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  48,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  4,100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Peruvian(s) adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups:  Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white)
37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 90%

Languages:  Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 88.3% male: 94.5% female: 83% (1995 est.)

Government Peru

Country name:  conventional long form: Republic of Peru conventional short
form: Peru local long form: Republica del Peru local short form: Peru

Government type:  constitutional republic

Capital:  Lima

Administrative divisions:  24 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional);
Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco,
Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto,
Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes,
Ucayali note: the 1979 constitution mandated the creation of regions
(regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous
economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been
constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres
Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa),
Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre
de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari
(from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna,
Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas),
San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another
region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province
of Callao to merge with the department of Lima; because of inadequate
funding from the central government and organizational and political
difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities;
the 1993 constitution retains the regions but limits their authority;
the 1993 constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and
municipal governments

Independence:  28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution:  31 December 1993

Legal system:  based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique
(since 28 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided
for by the constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Canseco (since
28 July 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July
2001) head of government:  the president is both the chief of state
and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided
for by the constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Canseco (since
28 July 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July
2001) note: Prime Minister Roberto DANINO (since 28 July 2001) does not
exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
special presidential and congressional elections held 8 April 2001,
with runoff election held 3 June 2001; next to be held 9 April 2006
election results: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique elected president
in runoff election; percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique 53.1%,
Alan GARCIA 46.9% cabinet: Legislative branch:  unicameral Congress of
the Republic of Peru or Congresso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) election
results: percent of vote by party - Peru Posible 26.3%, APRA 19.7%,
Unidad Nacional 13.8%, FIM 11.0%, others 29.2%; seats by party - Peru
Posible 47, APRA 28, Unidad Nacional 17, FIM 11, others 17 elections:
last held 8 April 2001 (next to be held 9 April 2006)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia
(judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)

Political parties and leaders:  American Popular Revolutionary Alliance
or APRA [Alan GARCIA]; Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando
OLIVERA Vega]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES
Nano]; Peru Posible or PP [Luis SOLARI]; Popular Action or AP [Javier
DIAZ Orihuela]; Solucion Popular [Carlos BOLANA]; Somos Peru or SP
[Alberto ANDRADE]; Union for Peru or UPP [Roger GUERRA Garcia]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  leftist guerrilla groups include
Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO
(top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA
[Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]

International organization participation:  ABEDA, APEC, CAN, CCC, ECLAC,
FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Allan
WAGNER chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington (DC)
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124 telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
John R. HAMILTON embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima
33 mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima),
APO AA 34031-5000 telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000 FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037

Flag description:  three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side),
white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the
coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the
source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins,
all framed by a green wreath

Economy Peru

Economy - overview:  Thanks to strong foreign investment and the
cooperation between the government and the IMF and World Bank, growth
was strong in 1994-97 and inflation was brought under control. In 1998,
El Nino's impact on agriculture, the financial crisis in Asia, and
instability in Brazilian markets undercut growth. And 1999 was another
lean year for Peru, with the aftermath of El Nino and the Asian financial
crisis working its way through the economy. Political instability
resulting from the presidential election and FUJIMORI's subsequent
departure from office limited growth in 2000. The downturn in the global
economy further depressed growth in 2001. President TOLEDO, who assumed
the presidency in July 2001, is working to reinvigorate the economy and
reduce unemployment. Economic growth in 2002 is projected to be 3 to 3.5%.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $132 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  -0.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $4,800 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 10% industry: 35% services:
55% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  50% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 35.4% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  46.2 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  1.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  7.5 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture, mining and quarrying,
manufacturing, construction, transport, services

Unemployment rate:  9%; widespread underemployment (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $10.4 billion expenditures: $10.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)

Industries:  mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing,
food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal

Industrial production growth rate:  1.5% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  19.679 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 17.89% hydro: 81.38%
other: 0.73% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  18.301 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes,
corn, plantains, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products, wool; fish

Exports:  $7.3 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  fish and fish products, gold, copper, zinc,
crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, coffee, sugar, cotton

Exports - partners:  US 28%, UK 8%, Switzerland 8%, China 6%, Japan,
Chile, Brazil (2000)

Imports:  $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs,
petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners:  US 27%, Chile 8%, Spain 6%, Venezuela 4%, Colombia,
Brazil, Japan (2000)

Debt - external:  $33.1 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $895.1 million (1995)

Currency:  nuevo sol (PEN)

Currency code:  PEN

Exchange rates:  nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.4400 (November 2001), 3.509
(2001), 3.4900 (2000), 3.3833 (1999), 2.9300 (1998), 2.6642 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Peru

Telephones - main lines in use:  1.509 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  504,995 (1998)

Telephone system:  general assessment: adequate for most requirements
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite
system with 12 earth stations international: satellite earth stations -
2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)

Radios:  6.65 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:  3.06 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .pe

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  10 (2000)

Internet users:  400,000 (2000)

Transportation Peru

Railways:   1,695 km 1.435-m gauge narrow gauge: Highways:  total:
72,900 km paved: 8,700 km unpaved: 64,200 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:  8,808 km note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon
system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca

Pipelines:  crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km

Ports and harbors:  Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto
Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas
note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches of
the Amazon and its tributaries

Merchant marine:   5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,470 GRT/45,451
DWT note:  United States 1 (2002 est.)  ships by type: cargo 4, petroleum
tanker 1

Airports:  239 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 47 over 3,047 m: 5 2,438 to 3,047
m: 20 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 8 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 192 1,524 to 2,437 m: 25 914
to 1,523 m: 65 under 914 m: 102 (2001)

Military Peru

Military branches:  Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra
del Peru; includes Naval Air, Marines, and Coast Guard), Air Force
(Fuerza Aerea del Peru; FAP), National Police (includes General Police,
Security Police, and Technical Police)

Military manpower - military age:  17 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 7,356,395 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 4,944,952
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 276,458
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $1 billion (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.8% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Peru

Disputes - international:  dispute with Chile over the economic zone
delimited by the maritime boundary; Colombian drug activities penetrate
Peruvian border area

Illicit drugs:  until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer;
emerging opium producer; Peru reduced the area of coca under cultivation
by 64% to 34,000 hectares between 1996 and the end of 2001; much of the
cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia for processing into
cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to
the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished
cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil and Bolivia for use in the
Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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