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New Zealand

Country Profile

Capital City: Wellington (pop. 367 000)

Other Cities: Auckland (1 223 000), Christchurch (339 000), Hamilton (182 000)

Local Time: UTC +12h

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia.
Area: 270 000 sq. km.
Terrain: Varied, from snowcapped mountains to lowland plains.

Climate: with sharp regional contrasts from temperate to subtropical.

Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Constitution: No formal, written constitution.
Independence: Declared a dominion in 1907.
Chief of State: Queen Elizabeth II
Dependent areas: Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau.

Nationality: Noun--New Zealander(s). Adjective--New Zealand.
Population: 4.1 million.
GNI per capita PPP: $ 24 805 (year) Ethnic groups: European 75%, Maori 15%, other Polynesian 6.5%. Religions: Christian Languages: English, Maori.
Literacy: 99%


Currency: New Zealand Dollar (NZD)

Natural resources: Natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone.

Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables; wool, beef, lamb and mutton, dairy products; fish.

Industries: Food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining.

Exports partners:
Australia 21%, USA 14.4%, Japan 11.3%, China 5.7%, UK 4.7% (2004)

Imports partners: Australia 22.4%, USA 11.3%, Japan 11.2%, China 9.7%, Germany 5.2% (2004)

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New Zealand

Background:  The British colony of New Zealand became an independent
dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New
Zealand's full participation in number of defense alliances lapsed
by the 1980s.  In recent years the government has sought to address
longstanding native Maori grievances.

Geography New Zealand

Location:  Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of

Geographic coordinates:  41 00 S, 174 00 E

Map references:  Oceania

Area:  total: 268,680 sq km note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland
Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec
Islands water: NA sq km land: NA sq km

Area - comparative:  about the size of Colorado

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  15,134 km

Maritime claims:  continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the
continental margin territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  temperate with sharp regional contrasts

Terrain:  predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point:
Mount Cook 3,764 m

Natural resources:  natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower,
gold, limestone

Land use:  arable land: 6% permanent crops: 6% other: 88% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  2,850 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  earthquakes are common, though usually not severe;
volcanic activity

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; soil erosion; native flora
and fauna hard-hit by species introduced from outside

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but
not ratified: Antarctic Seals, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine
Life Conservation

Geography - note:  about 80% of the population lives in cities; Wellington
is the southernmost national capital in the world

People New Zealand

Population:  3,908,037 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 22.2% (male 443,921; female 422,804) 15-64
years: 66.3% (male 1,299,973; female 1,290,097) 65 years and over: 11.5%
(male 196,640; female 254,602) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.12% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  14.23 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.55 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  4.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.77 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  6.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   81.27 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.8 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.06% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  1,200 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: New Zealander(s) adjective: New Zealand

Ethnic groups:  New Zealand European 74.5%, Maori 9.7%, other European
4.6%, Pacific Islander 3.8%, Asian and others 7.4%

Religions:  Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%, Methodist
5%, Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 33% (1986)

Languages:  English (official), Maori (official)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 99% (1980 est.)  male: NA% female: NA%

Government New Zealand

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
New Zealand abbreviation: NZ

Government type:  parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Wellington

Administrative divisions:  93 counties, 9 districts*, and 3 town
districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller,
Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont,
Eketahuna, Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden Bay,
Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay,
Heathcote, Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt,
Inangahua, Inglewood, Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie,
Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough, Masterton,
Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua, Otamatea, Otorohanga*,
Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako, Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*,
Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga, Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks,
Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford, Strathallan, Taranaki, Taumarunui,
Taupo, Tauranga, Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent, Waiapu, Waiheke,
Waihemo, Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate, Waimate West,
Waimea, Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South, Wairewa, Wairoa,
Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland,
Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa, Woodville note: there may be a
new administrative structure of 16 regions (Auckland, Bay of Plenty,
Canterbury, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago,
Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Wanganui-Manawatu, Wellington,
West Coast) that are subdivided into 57 districts and 16 cities*
(Ashburton, Auckland*, Banks Peninsula, Buller, Carterton, Central
Hawke's Bay, Central Otago, Christchurch*, Clutha, Dunedin*, Far North,
Franklin, Gisborne, Gore, Grey, Hamilton*, Hastings, Hauraki, Horowhenua,
Hurunui, Hutt*, Invercargill*, Kaikoura, Kaipara, Kapiti Coast, Kawerau,
Mackenzie, Manawatu, Manukau*, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata Piako,
Napier*, Nelson*, New Plymouth, North Shore*, Opotiki, Otorohanga,
Palmerston North*, Papakura*, Porirua*, Queenstown Lakes, Rangitikei,
Rodney, Rotorua, Ruapehu, Selwyn, Southland, South Taranaki, South
Waikato, South Wairarapa, Stratford, Tararua, Tasman, Taupo, Tauranga,
Thames Coromandel, Timaru, Upper Hutt*, Waikato, Waimakariri, Waimate,
Waipa, Wairoa, Waitakere*, Waitaki, Waitomo, Wanganui, Wellington*,
Western Bay of Plenty, Westland, Whakatane, Whangarei)

Dependent areas:  Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

Independence:  26 September 1907 (from UK)

National holiday:  Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British
sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)

Constitution:  consists of a series of legal documents, including certain
acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments and The Constitution Act 1986
which is the principal formal charter

Legal system:  based on English law, with special land legislation
and land courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Governor General Dame Silvia CARTWRIGHT (since 4
April 2001) head of government: Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 10
December 1999) and Deputy Prime Minister James (Jim) ANDERTON (since
10 December 1999) cabinet:  of the prime minister elections: none;
the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch;
following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or
the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister
by the governor general for a three-year term; deputy prime minister
appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch:  unicameral House of Representatives - commonly called
Parliament (120 seats; members elected by popular vote in single-member
constituencies to serve three-year terms) elections: last held 27 November
1999 (next must be called by November 2002) election results: percent of
vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NZLP 49, NP 39, Alliance 10, ACT
New Zealand 9, Green Party 7, NZFP 5, UNZ 1 note: NZLP and Alliance formed
the government coalition; the National Party is the opposition party

Judicial branch:  High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders:  ACT, New Zealand [Richard PREBBLE];
Alliance (a coalition of the New Labor Party, Democratic Party, New
Zealand Liberal Party, and Mana Motuhake) [James (Jim) ANDERTON]; Green
Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS and Rod DONALD]; National Party or NP [William
(Bill) English]; New Zealand First Party or NZFP [Winston PETERS]; New
Zealand Labor Party or NZLP [Helen CLARK]; United New Zealand or UNZ
[Peter DUNNE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ABEDA, ANZUS (US suspended
security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, ARF (dialogue
partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, C, CCC, CP,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
L. John WOOD chancery: 37 Observatory Circle
 [1] (202) 667-5227 consulate(s) general:
Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Charles J. SWINDELLS embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon,
Wellington mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1,
FPO AP 96531-1001 telephone: [64] (4) 462-6000 FAX: [64] (4) 478-1701
consulate(s) general: Auckland

Flag description:  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in
the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross

Economy New Zealand

Economy - overview:  Since 1984 the government has accomplished major
economic restructuring, transforming New Zealand from an agrarian economy
dependent on concessionary British market access to a more industrialized,
free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has
boosted real incomes (but left behind many at the bottom of the ladder),
broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial
sector, and contained inflationary pressures. While per capita incomes
have been rising, however, they remain below the level of the four largest
EU economies, and there is some government concern that New Zealand is not
closing the gap. New Zealand is heavily dependent on trade - particularly
in agricultural products - to drive growth, and it has been affected by
the global economic slowdown and the slump in commodity prices.  Thus far
the New Zealand economy has been relatively resilient, achieving about
3% growth in 2001, but the New Zealand business cycle tends to lag the
US cycle by about six months, so the worst of the downturn may not hit
until mid-2002.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $75.4 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3.1% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $19,500 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 8% industry: 23% services: 69%

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 0.3%
highest 10%: 29.8% (1991 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2.6% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  1.92 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 65%, industry 25%, agriculture 10%

Unemployment rate:  5.5% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $16.7 billion expenditures: $16.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01)

Industries:  food processing, wood and paper products, textiles,
machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism,

Industrial production growth rate:  3% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  35.823 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 26.55% hydro: 66.45%
other: 7% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  33.315 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits,
vegetables; wool, beef, dairy products; fish

Exports:  $14.2 billion (2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  dairy products, meat, wood and wood products,
fish, machinery

Exports - partners:  Australia 20.4%, US 14.5%, Japan 13.5%, UK 5.4%,
South Korea, China (2000)

Imports:  $12.5 billion (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft,
petroleum, electronics, textiles, plastics

Imports - partners:  Australia 22.5%, US 17.5%, Japan 11%, UK 4%, China,
Germany (2000)

Debt - external:  $31.1 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - donor:  ODA, $99.7 million (FY00/01)

Currency:  New Zealand dollar (NZD)

Currency code:  NZD

Exchange rates:  New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 2.3535 (January
2002), 2.3776 (2001), 2.1863 (2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8632 (1998), 1.5083

Fiscal year:  1 July - 30 June

Communications New Zealand

Telephones - main lines in use:  1.92 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  2.2 million (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: excellent domestic and
international systems domestic: NA international: submarine cables to
Australia and Fiji; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 124, FM 290, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios:  3.75 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  41 (plus 52 medium-power repeaters and
over 650 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:  1.926 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .nz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  36 (2000)

Internet users:  1.78 million (2001)

Transportation New Zealand

Railways:  total: 3,908 km narrow gauge: 3,908 km 1.067-m gauge (506 km
electrified) (2001)

Highways:  total: 92,200 km paved: 53,568 km (including at least 144 km
of expressways) unpaved: 38,632 km (1996)

Waterways:  1,609 km note: of little importance in satisfying total
transportation requirements

Pipelines:  petroleum products 160 km; natural gas 1,000 km; liquefied
petroleum gas or LPG 150 km

Ports and harbors:  Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Tauranga, Wellington

Merchant marine:   8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 68,427 GRT/106,627
DWT note:  Australia 1 (2002 est.)  ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 1,
container 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1

Airports:  106 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 44 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047
m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 28 under 914 m: 3 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 62 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to
1,523 m: 24 under 914 m: 37 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military New Zealand

Military branches:  New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New
Zealand Air Force

Military manpower - military age:  20 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,010,316 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 850,185
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 26,480
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $515.6 million (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.2% (FY2001/02)

Transnational Issues New Zealand

Disputes - international:  territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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