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Morocco Flag

Capital City: Maputo

Border countries
: Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Internet Links

Official Sites of Mozambique

Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros e Cooperação

Mozambique UN Mission

Embassy of the Republic of Mozambique

Instituto Nacional de Estatística

Political Map of Mozambique



Background:  Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close
with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites, economic
dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war
hindered the country's development. The ruling party formally abandoned
Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for
multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace
agreement with rebel forces ended the fighting in 1992.

Geography Mozambique

Location:  Southern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between
South Africa and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates:  18 15 S, 35 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 801,590 sq km water: 17,500 sq km land: 784,090 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:  total: 4,571 km border countries: Malawi 1,569 km,
South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km,
Zimbabwe 1,231 km

Coastline:  2,470 km

Maritime claims:  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  tropical to subtropical

Terrain:  mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in
northwest, mountains in west

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point:
Monte Binga 2,436 m

Natural resources:  coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum,

Land use:  arable land: 4% permanent crops: 0% other: 96% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  1,070 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods occur
in central and southern provinces

Environment - current issues:  a long civil war and recurrent drought in
the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population
to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences;
desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant
poaching for ivory is a problem

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the
selected agreements

Geography - note:  the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most
fertile part of the country

People Mozambique

Population:  19,607,519 note: estimates for this country explicitly
take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can
result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates,
lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997
Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 42.5% (male 4,162,413; female 4,176,295)
15-64 years: 54.7% (male 5,313,511; female 5,407,052) 65 years and over:
2.8% (male 227,761; female 320,487) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.13% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  36.41 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  25.13 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  138.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   34.65 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  4.71 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  12.6 to 16.4%, estimates vary (2001)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  1,546,643 (2001)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  114,111 (2001 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Mozambican(s) adjective: Mozambican

Ethnic groups:  indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Shangaan, Chokwe,
Manyika, Sena, Makua, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%,
Indians 0.08%

Religions:  indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%

Languages:  Portuguese (official), indigenous dialects

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 42.3% male: 58.4% female: 27% (1998 est.)

Government Mozambique

Country name:   Republic of Mozambique conventional short form:  local
long form: Republica de Mocambique

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Maputo

Administrative divisions:  10 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia), 1 city*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo,
Maputo City*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia

Independence:  25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 25 June (1975)

Constitution:  30 November 1990

Legal system:  based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO
(since 6 November 1986); note - before being popularly elected, CHISSANO
was elected president by Frelimo's Central Committee on 4 November 1986
(reelected by the Committee 30 July 1989) head of government: Prime
Minister Pascoal MOCUMBI (since 17 December 1994) cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 3-5 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime
minister appointed by the president election results: Joaquim Alberto
CHISSANO reelected president; percent of vote - Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO
52.29%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 47.71%

Legislative branch:  unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia
da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote
on a secret ballot to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 3-5
December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004) election results: percent of vote
by party - Frelimo 48.54%, Renamo-UE 38.81%; seats by party - Frelimo 133,
Renamo-UE 117 note:  parties received the 5% required to win parliamentary
seats; in September 2000, Renamo-UE member Raul DOMINGOS was expelled from
the party, he continues to hold his parliamentary seat as an independent

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its
professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected
by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs
courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts note: although
the constitution provides for the creation of a separate Constitutional
Court, one has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court
reviews constitutional cases

Political parties and leaders:  Front for the Liberation of Mozambique
(Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or Frelimo [Joaquim Alberto
CHISSANO, president]; Mozambique National Resistance-Electoral Union
(Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana-Uniao Eleitoral) or Renamo-UE [Afonso
DHLAKAMA, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Institute for Peace and Democracy
(Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president];
Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement for Peace and Citizenship
(Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights
(Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president];
Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD
[Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]

International organization participation:  ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, MONUC,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Armando
RANGUENE FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245 telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146 chancery:
Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20036

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Sharon P. WILKINSON embassy: Avenida Kenneth
 P. O. Box 783, Maputo telephone:
Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black,
and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side;
the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow
five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed
on an open white book

Economy Mozambique

Economy - overview:  At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the
world's poorest countries.  Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil
war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1988, the government
embarked on a series of dramatic macroeconomic reforms designed to
stabilize the economy and reduce government participation. These steps
combined with the political stability that has prevailed since the
1994 multi-party elections have led to dramatic improvements in the
country's growth rate fueled by foreign and domestic investments and
donor assistance. Inflation was brought to single digits during the
same period, although it has returned to double digits in 2000 and
2001. Foreign exchange rates have remained relatively stable.  Fiscal
reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of
the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection
abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon
foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and the majority of
the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture
continues to employ the vast majority of the country's workforce. A
substantial trade imbalance persists, although it has diminished
with the opening of the MOZAL aluminum smelter, the country's largest
foreign investment project.  Additional investment projects in titanium
extraction/processing and garment manufacturing should further close the
import/export gap. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been
reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily
Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is
now at a manageable level.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $17.5 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  9.2% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $900 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 33% industry: 25% services:
42% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  70% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 31.7% (1996-97)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  39.6 (1996-97)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  10% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  7.4 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 81%, industry 6%, services 13%
(1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:  21% (1997 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $393.1 million expenditures: $1.025 billion, including
capital expenditures of $479.4 million (2001 est.)

Industries:  food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints),
petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate:  3.4% (2000)

Electricity - production:  7.017 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 3.56% hydro: 96.44%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  925.81 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  5.7 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  100 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava
(tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes,
sunflowers; beef, poultry

Exports:  $746 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  prawns 40%, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus,
timber; bulk electricity (2000)

Exports - partners:  South Africa 12.7%, Zimbabwe 12.2%, Spain 10.6%,
Portugal 10.0% (2000)

Imports:  $1.254 billion (c.i.f., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, mineral products,
chemicals, metals, foodstuffs, textiles (2000)

Imports - partners:  South Africa 33.5%, Portugal 4.8%, US 4.2%, Australia
3.8% (2000)

Debt - external:  $1 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $632.8 million (2001)

Currency:  metical (MZM)

Currency code:  MZM

Exchange rates:  meticais per US dollar - 23,314.2 (January 2002),
20,703.6 (2001), 15,447.1 (2000), 13,028.6 (1999), 12,110.2 (1998),
11,772.6 (1997) note:  average of buying and selling exchange rates of
all transactions of commercial banks and stock exchanges with the public;
meticais is the plural form of metical

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Mozambique

Telephones - main lines in use:  90,000 (December 2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  100,000 (June 2001)

Telephone system:  general assessment: fair system but not available
generally (telephone density is only 3.5 telephones for each 1,000
persons) domestic: the system consists of open-wire lines and
trunk connection by microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean
and 3 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 13, FM 17, shortwave 11 (2001)

Radios:  730,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (2001)

Televisions:  67,600 (2000)

Internet country code:  .mz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  11 (2002)

Internet users:  22,500 (2000)

Transportation Mozambique

Railways:  total: 3,131 km narrow gauge: 2,988 km 1.067-m gauge; 143 km
0.762-m gauge (2001)

Highways:  total: 30,400 km paved: 5,685 km unpaved: 24,715 km (1996)

Waterways:  3,750 km (navigable routes)

Pipelines:  crude oil 306 km; petroleum products 289 km note: not

Ports and harbors:  Beira, Inhambane, Maputo, Nacala, Pemba, Quelimane

Merchant marine:  total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,125
GRT/7,024 DWT ships by type: cargo 3 note: includes some foreign-owned
ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 2 (2002 est.)

Airports:  166 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 22 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047
m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 5 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:   16 914 to 1,523 m: Military Mozambique

Military branches:  Army, Naval Command, Air and Air Defense Forces,
Special Forces, Militia

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 4,711,318 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 2,720,583
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $35.1 million (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1% (2000 est.)

Transnational Issues Mozambique

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  Southern African transit point for South Asian hashish,
South Asian heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for
the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local
consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa)

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

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