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Mongolia Flag

Country Profile

Capital City: Ulaanbaatar, (Ulan Bator) founded in 1639 (pop. 773.700)

Other Cities: Darkhan (95 000 inhabitants) and Erdenet (74 000 inhabitants)

Local Time:
UTC +8h

Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia.
Area: 1,566,500 sq. km. (604,103 sq. mi.); Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central; almost 90% of land area is pasture or desert, of varying usefulness; 1% arable; 9% forested.

Border countries
: China, Russia

Climate: Sharp continental, marked by four seasons. Average summer temperature +17'C, average winter temperature -26'C.

Type: Parliamentary Republic.
Independence: gained in 1921; in 1990, democratic reform begun and shift from dependence on the former Soviet Union declared.
Constitutions: 1960 and 12 February 1992.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Mongolian(s).
Population: 2.751 million.
Ethnic groups: 85% Mongol (predominantly Khalkha), 7% Turkic (largest group, Kazakh) 4.6% Tungusic, and 3.4% others, including Chinese and Russian.
Languages: Mongolian, Kazakh, Russian, and English.
Religions: Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism 94%, Muslim 6% (primarily in the southwest), and Shamanism.
Literacy: 90%.


Currency: Togrog/Tugrik (MNT)

Natural resources: Oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron.

Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops, sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses.

Industries: Construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing.

Exports partners:
China 50.7%, USA 26.3%, Canada 5.3%, UK 4.3%, Russia 4.2% (2004)

Imports partners: Russia 31%, China 23.1%, Japan 8.4%, South Korea 6.7% (2004)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Mongolia


Mongolia Presidency

Mongolia Parliament

Government Organizations of Mongolia

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of Mongolia to the United Nations

Embassy of Mongolia in the U.S.

Diplomatic Missions

National Statistics Office

Map of Mongolia

Map of East Asia

Reference map of Asia



Background:  The Mongols entered history in the 13th century when under
GENGHIS KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death
the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these
broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their
original steppe homelands and came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its
independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed
in 1924. During the early 1990s, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power to the
Democratic Union Coalition (DUC), which defeated the MPRP in a national
election in 1996. Over the next four years the DUC put forward a number
of key reforms to modernize the economy and democratize the political
system. However, the former Communists were a strong opposition that
stalled additional restructuring and made implementation difficult. In
2000, the MPRP won an overwhelming victory in the legislature - with 72
of the 76 seats - and completely reshuffled the government. While it
continues many of the reform policies, the MPRP is focusing on social
welfare and public order priorities.

Geography Mongolia

Location:  Northern Asia, between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates:  46 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references:  Asia

Area:  total: 1.565 million sq km water: 9,600 sq km land: 1,555,400 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:  total: 8,162 km border countries: China 4,677 km,
Russia 3,485 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature

Terrain:  vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains
in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m highest point:
Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m

Natural resources:  oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates,
tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate

Land use:  arable land: 1% permanent crops: 0% other: 99% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  840 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and
"zud", which is harsh winter conditions

Environment - current issues:  limited natural fresh water resources
in some areas; policies of the former Communist regime promoting
rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about
their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal
in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws have
severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing,
the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased
soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities
have also had a deleterious effect on the environment

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the
selected agreements

Geography - note:  landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

People Mongolia

Population:  2,694,432 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 32% (male 438,176; female 422,960) 15-64
years: 64.1% (male 864,033; female 865,172) 65 years and over: 3.9%
(male 45,080; female 59,011) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.48% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  21.8 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.01 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76
male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  51.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   66.87 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.37 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Mongolian(s) adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic groups:  Mongol (predominantly Khalkha) 85%, Turkic (of which
Kazakh is the largest group) 7%, Tungusic 4.6%, other (including Chinese
and Russian) 3.4% (1998)

Religions:  Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism 96%, Muslim (primarily in the
southwest), Shamanism, and Christian 4% (1998)

Languages:  Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 97.8% male: 98% female: 97.5% (2000)

Government Mongolia

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Mongolia local short form: Mongol Uls former: Outer Mongolia local long
form: none

Government type:  parliamentary

Capital:  Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions:  21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag)
and 1 municipality* (hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan,
Darhan Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govi-Sumber,
Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar,
Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence:  11 July 1921 (from China)

National holiday:  Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution:  12 February 1992

Legal system:  blend of Russian, Chinese, Turkish, and Western systems
of law that combines aspects of a parliamentary system with some aspects
of a presidential system; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of
legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since
20 June 1997) head of government: Prime Minister Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR
(since 26 July 2000) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great
Hural in consultation with the president elections: president nominated
by parties in the State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a
four-year term; election last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA May
2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party
or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State
Great Hural; election last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: Natsagiyn BAGABANDI reelected president; percent of vote
- Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (MPRP) 58.13%, Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ (DP)
36.58%, Luvsandamba DASHNYAM (CWP) 3.54%, other 1.75%; Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR
elected prime minister by a vote in the State Great Hural of 68 to 3

Legislative branch:  unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held
2 July 2000 (next to be held NA July 2004) election results: percent of
vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPRP 72, other 4

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's
and provincial courts, but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts;
judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval by
the president)

Political parties and leaders:  Citizens' Will Party or CWP (also called
Civil Will Party or Civil Courage Party) [Sanjaasurengyn OYUN]; Democratic
Party or DP [D. DORLIGJAN]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP
[Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or MNSDP
[B.  ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [B. JARGALSAIHAN]
note: the MPRP is the ruling party

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB,
ASEAN (observer), CCC, CP (provisional), EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
consulate(s) general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227 telephone: [1]
(202) 333-7117

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
John DINGER embassy: inner northeast part of the Big Ring Road, just west
of the Selbe Gol, Ulaanbaatar mailing address: United States Embassy in
Mongolia, P. O.  Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar
 [976] (11) 329095 FAX:
Flag description:  three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue,
and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national
emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric
representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)

Economy Mongolia

Economy - overview:  Economic activity traditionally has been based
on agriculture and breeding of livestock. Mongolia also has extensive
mineral deposits: copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold
account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance,
at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990-91,
at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. Mongolia was driven into
deep recession, prolonged by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's
(MPRP) reluctance to undertake serious economic reform. The Democratic
Coalition (DC) government has embraced free-market economics, easing price
controls, liberalizing domestic and international trade, and attempting
to restructure the banking system and the energy sector. Major domestic
privatization programs were undertaken, as well as the fostering of
foreign investment through international tender of the oil distribution
company, a leading cashmere company, and banks. Reform was held back by
the ex-Communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought
about through four successive governments under the DC.  Economic growth
picked up in 1997-99 after stalling in 1996 due to a series of natural
disasters and declines in world prices of copper and cashmere. In August
and September 1999, the economy suffered from a temporary Russian ban
on exports of oil and oil products, and Mongolia remains vulnerable
in this sector. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization (WTrO)
in 1997. The international donor community pledged over $300 million
per year at the last Consultative Group Meeting, held in Ulaanbaatar
in June 1999. The MPRP government, elected in July 2000, is anxious to
improve the investment climate; it must also deal with a heavy burden
of external debt. Falling prices for Mongolia's mainly primary sector
exports, widespread opposition to privatization, and adverse effects of
weather on agriculture in early 2000 and 2001 restrained real GDP growth
in 2000-01.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $4.7 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  2.4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,770 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 32% industry: 30% services:
38% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  36% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 24.5% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  33.2 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  11.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force:  1.4 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:  primarily herding/agricultural

Unemployment rate:  20% (2000)

Budget:  revenues: $262 million expenditures: $328 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries:  construction materials, mining (coal, copper, molybdenum,
fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages, processing of animal

Industrial production growth rate:  2.4% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:  2.77 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  2.732 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  25 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  181 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep,
goats, cattle, camels, horses

Exports:  $466.1 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities:  copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere,
wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals

Exports - partners:  China 59%, US 20%, Russia 10%, Japan 2% (2000)

Imports:  $614.5 million (c.i.f., 2000)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, fuels, food products,
industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea

Imports - partners:  Russia 34%, China 21%, Japan 12%, South Korea 9%,
US 4% (2000)

Debt - external:  $760 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $208.7 million (1999 est.)

Currency:  togrog/tugrik (MNT)

Currency code:  MNT

Exchange rates:  togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,101.29 (December 2001),
1,097.70 (2001), 1,076.67 (2000), 1,072.37 (1999), 840.83 (1998), 789.99

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Mongolia

Telephones - main lines in use:  104,100 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  110,000 (2001)

Telephone system:  general assessment: very low density: about 3.5
telephones for each thousand persons domestic: NA international: satellite
earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 7, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2001)

Radios:  155,900 (1999)

Television broadcast stations:  4 (plus 18 provincial repeaters and many
low powered repeaters) (1999)

Televisions:  168,800 (1999)

Internet country code:  .mn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  5 (2001)

Internet users:  30,000 (2001)

Transportation Mongolia

Railways:  1,815 km broad gauge: 1,815 km 1.524-m gauge (2001)

Highways:  total: 3,387 km paved: 1,563 km note: there are also 45,862
km of rural roads that consist of rough, unimproved, cross-country tracks
(2000) unpaved: 1,824 km

Waterways:  400 km (1999)

Ports and harbors:  none

Airports:  34 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 8 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 under 914 m:
1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 26 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to
3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 5 (2001)

Military Mongolia

Military branches:  Mongolian Armed Forces (includes General Purpose
Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense Troops); note - Border
Troops are under Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs in peacetime

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 772,619 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 501,493
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 30,230
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $24.3 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.5% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Mongolia

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



Arts & Culture
Art Council of Mongolia

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