World Online Education - World Portal : International Online Education Portal
Worldwide Online Education
International Online Education Portal
Learn About the World's Online Business, Education, Economy, Politics, Culture, Religion, Media and More









Online Business Education. Economy. Politics. Culture. Religion. Media

Flag of Moldova

Capital City
: Chisinau (Kishnev)

Border countries
: Romania, Ukraine

Internet Links

Official Sites of Moldova
Republica Moldova

Parlamentul Republicii Moldova

Mission of Moldova to the United Nations Office in Geneva.

The Embassy of the Republic of Moldova

Political Map of Moldova



Background:  Formerly ruled by Romania, Moldova became part of the
Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from
the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory
east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population,
mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria"
republic. One of the poorest nations in Europe, Moldova became the first
former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president in 2001.

Geography Moldova

Location:  Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates:  47 00 N, 29 00 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 33,843 sq km water: 472 sq km land: 33,371 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries:  total: 1,389 km border countries: Romania 450 km,
Ukraine 939 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  moderate winters, warm summers

Terrain:  rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Dniester River 2 m highest point:
Dealul Balanesti 430 m

Natural resources:  lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone

Land use:  arable land: 54% permanent crops: 12% other: 34% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  3,070 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  landslides (57 cases in 1998)

Environment - current issues:  heavy use of agricultural chemicals,
including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and
groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not
ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:  landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary
rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone

People Moldova

Population:  4,434,547 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 21.7% (male 490,414; female 472,912) 15-64
years: 68.2% (male 1,451,962; female 1,572,561) 65 years and over: 10.1%
(male 165,860; female 280,838) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.09% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  13.82 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  12.64 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.59 male(s)/female total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  42.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   69.31 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.71 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.2% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  4,500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Moldovan(s) adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic groups:  Moldovan/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%,
Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, Gagauz and other 5.2% (1989 est.)  note:
internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region

Religions:  Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist (only about
1,000 members) (1991)

Languages:  Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian
language), Russian (official), Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 96% male: 99% female: 94% (1989 est.)

Government Moldova

Country name:   Republic of Moldova conventional short form:  Moldova;
Moldavia local long form: Republica Moldova

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Chisinau

Administrative divisions:  9 counties (juletule, singular - juletul),
1 municipality* (municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit** (unitate
teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit*** (unitate teritoriala);
Balti, Cahul, Chisinau, Chisinau*, Edinet, Gagauzia**, Lapusna, Orhei,
Soroca, Stinga Nistrului***, Tighina, Ungheni

Independence:  27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 27 August (1991)

Constitution:  new constitution adopted 28 July 1994; replaces old Soviet
constitution of 1979

Legal system:  based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews
legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution;
it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts
many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4
April 2001) head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15
April 2001), First Deputy Prime Minister Vasile IOVV (since NA 2002),
Deputy Prime Minister Stefan ODAGIU (since NA 2002) cabinet: selected by
prime minister, subject to approval of Parliament elections: president
elected by Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 4 April
2001 (next to be held NA 2005); note - presidential elections were
scheduled for December 2000, but in July 2000, Parliament canceled direct,
popular elections; Parliament's failure to chose a new president in
December 2000 led to early parliamentary elections in February 2001; prime
minister designated by the president, upon consultation with Parliament;
note - within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must
request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work
program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 15 April 2001,
cabinet received a vote of confidence 19 April 2001 election results:
Vladimir VORONIN elected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN
71, Dumitru BRAGHIS 15, Valerian CHRISTEA 3; Vasile TARLEV designated
prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101

Legislative branch:  unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats;
parties and electoral blocs, as well as independent candidates, elected
by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 25 February
2001 (next to be held NA 2005) election results: percent of vote by party
- PCM 50.1%, Braghis Alliance 13.4%, PPCD 8.2%, other parties 28.3%;
seats by party - PCM 71, Braghis Alliance 19, PPCD 11

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority
for constitutional judicature)

Political parties and leaders:  Braghis Alliance [Dumitru BRAGHIS];
Communist Party or PCM [Vladimir VORONIN, first chairman]; Popular
Christian Democratic Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Social Democratic
Union (composed of Braghis Alliance and the Democratic Party of Moldova)
[leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent),

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Mihai
MANOLI FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204 telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130 chancery:
2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Pamela Hyde SMITH embassy: 103 Mateevicie Street, Chisinau 2009 mailing
address: use embassy street address; pouch address - American Embassy
Chisinau, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7080 telephone:
[373] (2) 23-37-72 FAX: [373] (2) 23-30-44

Flag description:  same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical
bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is
of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons
carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its
right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is
a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head,
star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow

Economy Moldova

Economy - overview:  Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good
farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy
depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine,
and tobacco. Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil, coal, and
natural gas, largely from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to sharp
production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. As
part of an ambitious reform effort, Moldova introduced a convertible
currency, freed all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state
enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls,
and freed interest rates. Yet these efforts could not offset the impact
of political and economic difficulties, both internal and regional. In
1998, the economic troubles of Russia, by far Moldova's leading trade
partner, were a major cause of the 8.6% drop in GDP. In 1999, GDP fell
again, by 4.4%, the fifth drop in the past seven years; exports were
down, and energy supplies continued to be erratic. Following the return
to positive GDP growth in 2000 (1.9%), Moldova experienced strong 6.1%
rise in GDP in 2001, driven by a marked improvement in industry and a 20%
improvement in agriculture.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $11.3 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  6.1% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $2,550 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 28% industry: 21% services:
51% (2000)

Population below poverty line:  80% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 30.7% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  40.6 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  9.6% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  1.7 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 40%, industry 14%, services 46%

Unemployment rate:  1.9% (includes only officially registered unemployed;
large numbers of underemployed workers; 25% of working age Moldovans
are employed abroad) (November 2000)

Budget:  revenues: $536 million expenditures: $594 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Industries:  food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment,
refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, sugar, vegetable
oil, shoes, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:  14.2% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  3.317 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 90.44% hydro: 9.56%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  3.655 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  630 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  1.2 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets,
sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk

Exports:  $580 million (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  foodstuffs 42%, textiles and footwear, machinery

Exports - partners:  Russia 45%, Romania 8%, Germany 8%, Ukraine 8%,
Italy 8% (2000)

Imports:  $865 million (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  mineral products and fuel 32%, machinery and
equipment, chemicals, textiles (2000)

Imports - partners:  Romania 16%, Ukraine 14%, Russia 13%, Germany 11%,
Italy 6% (2000)

Debt - external:  $700 million (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  $100.8 million (1995); note - $547 million
from the IMF and World Bank (1992-99)

Currency:  Moldovan leu (MDL)

Currency code:  MDL

Exchange rates:  lei per US dollar - 12.8579 (October 2001), 12.4342
(2000), 10.5158 (1999), 5.3707 (1998), 4.6236 (1997); note - lei is the
plural form of leu

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Moldova

Telephones - main lines in use:  627,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  2,200 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service
outside Chisinau, some effort to modernize is under way domestic: new
subscribers face long wait for service; mobile cellular telephone service
being introduced international: service through Romania and Russia via
landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 7, FM 50, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios:  3.22 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (plus 30 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:  1.26 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .md

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (1999)

Internet users:  15,000 (2000)

Transportation Moldova

Railways:  total: 1,328 km broad gauge: 1,328 km 1.520-m gauge (2001)

Highways:  total: 20,000 km paved: 13,900 km (includes some all-weather
gravel-surfaced roads) unpaved: 6,100 km (these roads are made of
unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Waterways:  424 km (1994)

Pipelines:  natural gas 310 km (1992)

Ports and harbors:  none

Airports:  30 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 7 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m:
2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:   1 914 to 1,523 m: Military Moldova

Military branches:  Ground Forces (includes Air and Air Defense Forces),
Republic Security Forces (includes paramilitary Internal Troops and
Border Troops)

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,172,714 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 929,316
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 42,268
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $6 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  0.4% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Moldova

Disputes - international:  Moldovan difficulties with break-away
Transnistria region inhibit establishment of a joint customs regime with
Ukraine to curtail smuggling, arms transfers, and other illegal activities

Illicit drugs:  limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly
for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest
Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Independent Journalism Center



Business & Economy
Banca Nationala a Moldovei (BNM)

Bursa de Valori a Moldovei

Camera de Comert si Industrie a RM

Moldova Trade Point

Yellow pages of Moldova


  • Airline
    Air Moldova International

  • Railroad
    Moldova State Railway

    Country Guides

    A Guide to Chisinau and Moldova

    Virtual Kishinev

    About Moldova & Kishinev

    Moldova Photo Gallery

    Saharna Monastery

    Welcome Moldova

    about Moldova
    Moldova Economy. History, Travel etc

    Education & Research
    Academy of Sciences of Moldova

    Universitatea de Stat din Moldova

    TUM - Technical University of Moldova

    Geological monuments


    Moldova History

    Transnistrian conflict

    Moldova Internet Resources


    Yellow pages of Moldova

    Usenet Newsgroup of Romania and Moldova






















    Education Resources

    Natural Stone Veneer
    Stone Directory

    Las Vegas Graphics & Web Design
    Las Vegas Graphic & Web Design
    Graphic Design & Web Design in Las Vegas

    Dentures. Complete Dentures. Partial Dentures.
     Complete Dentures
     Partial Dentures

    Leadership Courses & Management Courses in Las Vegas USA
    Management Training Courses in Las Vegas USA
    Leadership Training & Management Courses in Las Vegas

    Management  Best Practices
    Management Best Practices

    Management Consulting Courses
    Management Consulting Courses

    Management Training Courses
    Management Training Courses

    Business School Online
    Online Business Schools

    Open Courseware
    Free Open Courses

    Online Business Courses
    Business Schools Online

    Business Management Courses
    Business Management Courses

    CEO Magazine
    CEO Magazine

    CEO Library
    CEO Library

    CEO Club
    Executive Networking

    CEO Books
    CEO Books

    MBA Review
    Review of MBA Programs

    Best MBA
    Ranking of World's Best MBA Programs

    MBA distance Learning
    Online MBA

    Top Ranking MBA
    Ranking of Top MBA Programs

    Online Executive MBA
    Online Executive MBA Programs

    Accelerated MBA
    Accelerated MBA Programs

    Las Vegas Web Design
    Las Vegas Web Design