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Mali Flag

Country Profile

Capital City: Bamako (pop. 1 million)

Other Cities: Segou (200 000), Sikasso (120 000), Mopti (90 000), Gao (65 000), Kayes (65 000), Timbuktu (38 000)

Local Time: UTC +0h

Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria.
Area: 1 240 000 sq. km. (474 764 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Savannah and desert.

Border countries
: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal

Climate: Semitropical in the south; arid in the north.

Type: Republic
Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France).

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Malian(s).
Population (2003): 10,5 million.
Ethnic groups: Manding, Mande (Bambara or Bamana, Malinke, Sarakole, Soninke) 50%, Fulani, Songhai, Voltaic, Tuareg and Maur.
Religions: Islam 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%.
Languages: French (official) and Bambara (spoken by about 80% of the population).
Literacy: 30-45%. (est.)


Currency: CFA Franc BCEAO (XOF)

Natural resources:
Gold, phosphate, kaolin, salt, and limestone.
Agriculture Products, (42% of GDP): millet, sorghum, corn, rice, livestock, sugar, cotton, Groundnuts (peanuts), and tobacco.

Agriculture products:
Cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats.

Industries: Food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining.

Exports partners:
Thailand 14%, China 12.1%, India 7.9%, Italy 7.5%, Bangladesh 6.1%, UK 6.1% (2003)

Imports partners: France 15.4%, Senegal 7.7%, Cote d'Ivoire 7.1% (2003)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Mali

Présidence de la République du Mali

Ministère de la Culture du Mali

Maliens de l'Extérieur

Diplomatic Missions
Embassy of Mali

Mali Embassies Abroad

Mali visa applications

Map of Mali



Background:  The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of
France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a
few months, the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship
was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government, and in 1992
when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held.  Since his
reelection in 1997, President KONARE continued to push through political
and economic reforms and to fight corruption. In 1999 he indicated he
would not run for a third term, in keeping with the Malian constitution's
two-term limit.

Geography Mali

Location:  Western Africa, southwest of Algeria

Geographic coordinates:  17 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 1.24 million sq km water: 20,000 sq km land: 1.22 million
sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:  total: 7,243 km border countries: Algeria 1,376 km,
Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania
2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy,
humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain:  mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand;
savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Senegal River 23 m highest point:
Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

Natural resources:  gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium,
hydropower note:  not exploited

Land use:  arable land: 4% permanent crops: 0% other: 96% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  1,380 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry
seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified:
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note:  landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the
southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the
northern, arid Saharan

People Mali

Population:  11,340,480 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 47.2% (male 2,687,998; female 2,658,605)
15-64 years: 49.8% (male 2,698,789; female 2,950,276) 65 years and over:
3% (male 160,604; female 184,208) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.97% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  48.37 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  18.32 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.87 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  119.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   48.64 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  6.73 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  1.7% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  140,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  9,900 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Malian(s) adjective: Malian

Ethnic groups:  Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic
12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%

Religions:  Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

Languages:  French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 38% male: 45% female: 31% (1998 est.)

Government Mali

Country name:  conventional long form: Republic of Mali conventional
short form: Mali local short form: Mali former: French Sudan and Sudanese
Republic local long form: Republique de Mali

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Bamako

Administrative divisions:  8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao,
Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou

Independence:  22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 22 September (1960)

Constitution:  adopted 12 January 1992

Legal system:  based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which
was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE
(since 8 June 2002) head of government: Prime Minister Modibo KEITA
(since 18 March 2002)
 Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections:  election
 last held 12 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2007); prime
minister appointed by the president election results: Amadou Toumani
TOURE elected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 64.4%,
Soumaila CISSE 35.6%

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale
(147 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 July and 3 August 1997 (next to be held NA July
2002); note - much of the opposition boycotted the election election
results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ADEMA 95,
RPM 35, PARENA 8, CDS 4, UDD 3, PDP 2

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders:  Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA
[Diounconda Traore KEITA, party chairman]; Block of Alternative for the
Renewal of Africa or BARA [Yoro DIAKITE]; Democratic and Social Convention
or CDS [Mamadou Bakary SANGARE, chairman]; Movement for the Independence,
Renaissance and Integration of Africa or MIRIA [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE,
Mouhamedou DICKO]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID
[Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me
Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Yoro DIAKITE,
chairman; Tiebile DRAME, secretary general]; Rally for Democracy and
Labor or RDT [Ali GNANGADO]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP
[Almamy SYLLA, chairman]; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Bonbasor KEITA,
chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou
Bamou TOURE, secretary general]; Union of Democratic Forces for Progress
or UFDP [Youssouf TOURE, secretary general]; Union for Democracy and
Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda
Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA

International organization participation:  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIPONUH, NAM,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Cheick
Oumar DIARRAH FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603 telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249,
939-8950 chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Michael E. RANNEBERGER embassy: Rue Rochester
 B. P. 34, Bamako telephone:
Flag description:  three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy Mali

Economy - overview:  Mali is among the poorest countries in the world,
with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is
largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About
10% of the population is nomadic and some 70% of the labor force is
engaged in farming and fishing.  Industrial activity is concentrated
on processing farm commodities.  Mali is heavily dependent on foreign
aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main
export. In 1997, the government continued its successful implementation
of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping
the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's
adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the African
franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a sturdy 5%
average in 1996-2000. In 2001, GDP decreased by 1.2% mainly due to a 50%
drop in cotton production in 2000-01.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $9.2 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  -1.2% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $840 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 45% industry: 17% services:
38% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  64% average; 30% of the total population
living in urban areas; 76% of the total population living in rural areas)
(2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 40.4% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  50.5 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  4.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  3.93 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture and fishing 80% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:  14.6% urban areas; 5.3% rural areas (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $764 million expenditures: $828 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)

Industries:  food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining

Industrial production growth rate:  NA

Electricity - production:  462 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 43.29% hydro: 56.71%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  429.66 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts;
cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:  $575 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  cotton 43%, gold 40%, livestock (2001 est.)

Exports - partners:  Brazil 10.6%, South Korea 9.9%, Italy 7.3%, Canada 7%

Imports:  $600 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, construction materials,
petroleum, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners:  Cote d'Ivoire 21%, France 12.4%, Senegal 4%,
Germany 4%, Benelux (2000)

Debt - external:  $3.3 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:  $596.4 million (2001)

Currency:  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code:  XOF

Exchange rates:  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US
dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70
(1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the
XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Mali

Telephones - main lines in use:  45,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  40,000 (2001)

Telephone system:  general assessment: domestic system unreliable but
improving; provides only minimal service domestic: network consists
of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications
stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress international:
satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 1, FM 28, shortwave 1 note: the shortwave
station in Bamako has seven frequencies and five transmitters and relays
broadcasts for China Radio International (2001)

Radios:  570,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (plus repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:  45,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .ml

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  13 (2001)

Internet users:  10,000 (2000)

Transportation Mali

Railways:  total: 729 km narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge note: linked
to Senegal's rail system through Kayes (2001)

Highways:  total: 15,100 km paved: 1,827 km unpaved: 13,273 km (1996)

Waterways:  1,815 km

Ports and harbors:  Koulikoro

Airports:  27 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 7 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to
2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 20 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to
1,523 m: 7 under 914 m: 9 (2001)

Military Mali

Military branches:  Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard,
National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,369,578 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,358,646
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $50 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Mali

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

Africa News Mali

Sous le Baobab

Mali Today

Arts & Culture
Ministère de la Culture

Mali Gallery
1000 Images du Mali

Rencontre de la photographie africaine

Music of Mali
Djeli ya - Griots et Musiciens du Mali

Griots of West Africa & Beyond

Mamadou Diabate

Business & Economy
National Federation of the Craftsmen of Mali

ProMali, le portail de la Zone Franc CFA


Destination Mali: Travel and Tour Guides
Ministère du Tourisme du Mali

Afribone Mali

Au Coeur du Mali

Experience Mali

Images and Sights of Mali

Mysterious Places: Mali



Civilizations in Africa: Mali

Histoire du Mali : D'un empire a une Republique

Kingdoms of the Medieval Sudan

Mali Interactive Project

Lycée Français Liberté





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