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Flag of Luxembourg

Capital City
: Luxembourg

Border countries: Belgium, France, Germany

Internet Links

Official Sites of Luxembourg

Le gouvernement Luxembourgeois

Map of Luxembourg



Background:  Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815
and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half
of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of
autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in
both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into
the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year.
In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the
European Economic Community (later the European Union) and in 1999 it
joined the euro currency area.

Geography Luxembourg

Location:  Western Europe, between France and Germany

Geographic coordinates:  49 45 N, 6 10 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 2,586 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 2,586 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries:  total: 359 km border countries: Belgium 148 km, France
73 km, Germany 138 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain:  mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys;
uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle
flood plain in the southeast

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Moselle River 133 m highest point:
Buurgplaatz 559 m

Natural resources:  iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land

Land use:  arable land: 25% permanent crops: 0% other: 75% (includes
Belgium) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  40 sq km (includes Belgium) (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  NA

Environment - current issues:  air and water pollution in urban areas,
soil pollution of farmland

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified:
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Environmental Modification

Geography - note:  landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world, it is
the smallest of the European Union member states

People Luxembourg

Population:  448,569 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 18.9% (male 43,634; female 41,164) 15-64
years: 67% (male 151,364; female 149,156) 65 years and over: 14.1%
(male 25,486; female 37,765) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.25% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  12.06 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  8.83 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  9.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.67 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  4.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   80.97 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.7 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.16% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Luxembourger(s) adjective: Luxembourg

Ethnic groups:  Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese,
Italian, Slavs (from Montenegro, Albania, and Kososvo) and European
(guest and resident workers)

Religions:  the greatest preponderance of the population is Roman Catholic
with a very few Protestants, Jews, and Muslims note: 1979 legislation
forbids the collection of religious statistics

Languages:  Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative
language), French (administrative language)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 100% male: 100% female: 100% (2000 est.)

Government Luxembourg

Country name:  conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg local short form: Luxembourg local
long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg

Government type:  constitutional monarchy

Capital:  Luxembourg

Administrative divisions:  3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg

Independence:  1839 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday:  National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte)
23 June

Constitution:  17 October 1868, occasional revisions

Legal system:  based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:  chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October
2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11
November 1981) head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER
(since 1 January 1995) and Vice Prime Minister Lydie POLFER (since
7 August 1999) cabinet:  the monarch elections: none; the monarch is
hereditary; prime minister and vice prime minister appointed by the
monarch, following popular election to the Chamber of Deputies; they
are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies note: government coalition -
CSV and DP

Legislative branch:  unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes
(60 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year
terms) elections:  also a Council of State that serves as an advisory
body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members
appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister election
results: percent of vote by party - CSV 29.79%, DP 21.58%, LSAP 23.75%,
ADR 10.36%, Green Party 9.09%, the Left 3.77%; seats by party - CSV 19,
DP 15, LSAP 13, ADR 6, Green Party 5, the Left 2

Judicial branch:  judicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace,
2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative
courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts
and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are
appointed for life by the monarch

Political parties and leaders:  Action Committee for Democracy and Justice
or ADR [Robert MEHLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV (known also
as Christian Social Party or PCS) [Erna HENNICOT-SCHOEPGES]; Democratic
Party or DP [Lydie POLFER]; Green Party [Abbes JACOBY and Felix BRAS];
Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Jean ASSELBORN]; Marxist
and Reformed Communist Party DEI LENK (the Left) [no formal leadership];
other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:  ABBL (bankers' association);
ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation
of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP
(trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of
Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation
of industrialists); LCGP (center-right trade union); OGBL (center-left
trade union)

International organization participation:  ACCT, Australia Group,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Arlette
CONZEMIUS-PACCOURD chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20008 consulate(s) general:  (202) 265-4171

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Gerald LOFTUS embassy: 22 Boulevard
Emmanuel-Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City mailing address: American Embassy
Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy
Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail) telephone:
[352] 46 01 23 FAX: [352] 46 14 01

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a
darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France

Economy Luxembourg

Economy - overview:  This stable, high-income economy features solid
growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector,
initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to
include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial
sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Services,
especially banking, account for a substantial proportion of the
economy. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy
depends on foreign and trans-border workers for 30% of its labor
force. Although Luxembourg, like all EU members, has suffered from the
global economic slump, the country has maintained a fairly robust growth
rate. On 1 January 2002, Luxembourg - together with 11 of its EU partners
- began to replace its circulating national currency with the euro.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $19.2 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $43,400 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 1% industry: 30% services: 69%
(2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2.4% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  262,300 (of whom 87,400 are foreign cross-border workers
primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany) (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 90.1%, industry 8%, agriculture
1.9% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:  2.4% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $4.44 billion expenditures: $4.44 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries:  banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal
products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum

Industrial production growth rate:  1.9% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  467.7 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 57.52% hydro: 25.66%
other: 16.82% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  6.158 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  735 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  6.458 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine
grapes; livestock products

Exports:  $7.85 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, steel products,
chemicals, rubber products, glass

Exports - partners:  EU 85% (Germany 24%, France 21%, Belgium 13%), US 4%

Imports:  $10.25 billion (c.i.f., 2000)

Imports - commodities:  minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer

Imports - partners:  EU 88% (Belgium 37%, Germany 25%, France 13%), US 4%

Debt - external:  $NA

Economic aid - donor:  ODA, $160 million (1999)

Currency:  euro (EUR); Luxembourg franc (LUF) note: on 1 January 1999,
the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to
be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002,
the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the
member countries

Currency code:  EUR; LUF

Exchange rates:  euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175
(2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Luxembourg francs per US dollar -
34.77 (January 1999), 36.299 (1998), 35.774 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Luxembourg

Telephones - main lines in use:  314,700 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  215,741 (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: highly developed, completely
automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables domestic: nationwide
cellular telephone system; buried cable international: 3 channels leased
on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable (Europe to North America)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios:  285,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  5 (1999)

Televisions:  285,000 (1998 est.)

Internet country code:  .lu

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  8 (2000)

Internet users:  100,000 (2001)

Transportation Luxembourg

Railways:  total: 274 km standard gauge: 274 km 1.435-m gauge (242 km
electrified) (2001)

Highways:   5,166 km (including 118 km of expressways) unpaved: Waterways:
37 km (on the Moselle)

Pipelines:  petroleum products 48 km

Ports and harbors:  Mertert

Merchant marine:  total: 60 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,487,752
GRT/2,123,579 DWT ships by type: bulk 2, chemical tanker 13, container 8,
liquefied gas 19, passenger 4, petroleum tanker 8, roll on/roll off 6
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
convenience: Belgium 21, Finland 3, France 8, Germany 10, Monaco 1,
Netherlands 3, Norway 1, United Kingdom 9, United States 3 (2002 est.)

Airports:  2 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Luxembourg

Military branches:  Army, Grand Ducal Police

Military manpower - military age:  19 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 113,557 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 93,429
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 2,565
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $147.8 million (FY01/02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  0.8% (FY01/02)

Transnational Issues Luxembourg

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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