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Flag of Lithuania

Capital City: Vilnius

Border countries
: Belarus, Latvia, Poland, Russia (Kaliningrad)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Lithuania


Lietuvos Respublikos Prezidentas

Uzsienio Reikalu Ministerija

Permanent Mission of Lithuania to the UN

Embassy of the Republic of the Lithuania

Statistikos departamentas prie Lietuvos Respublikos Vyriausybės

Political Map of Lithuania



Background:  Independent between the two World Wars, Lithuania was annexed
by the USSR in 1940. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of
the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but this proclamation
was not generally recognized until September of 1991 (following the
abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993.
Lithuania subsequently has restructured its economy for eventual
integration into Western European institutions.

Geography Lithuania

Location:  Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia
and Russia

Geographic coordinates:  56 00 N, 24 00 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 65,200 sq km water: NA sq km land: NA sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries:  total: 1,273 km border countries: Belarus 502 km,
Latvia 453 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km

Coastline:  99 km

Maritime claims:  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate
winters and summers

Terrain:  lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m highest point:
Juozapines/Kalnas 292 m

Natural resources:  peat, arable land

Land use:  arable land: 45% permanent crops: 1% other: 54% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  90 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  NA

Environment - current issues:  contamination of soil and groundwater
with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent
Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:  fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands
that are ancient glacial deposits

People Lithuania

Population:  3,601,138 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 18.2% (male 333,966; female 319,992) 15-64
years: 68% (male 1,184,969; female 1,265,711) 65 years and over: 13.8%
(male 167,789; female 328,711) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  -0.25% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  10.22 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  12.87 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.51 male(s)/female total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  14.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   75.6 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.4 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  less than 500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Lithuanian(s) adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic groups:  Lithuanian 80.6%, Russian 8.7%, Polish 7%, Belarusian
1.6%, other 2.1%

Religions:  Roman Catholic (primarily), Lutheran, Russian Orthodox,
Protestant, Evangelical Christian Baptist, Muslim, Jewish

Languages:  Lithuanian (official), Polish, Russian

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 98% male: 99% female: 98% (1989 est.)

Government Lithuania

Country name:   Republic of Lithuania conventional short form:  Republic
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika

Government type:  parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Vilnius

Administrative divisions:  10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis);
Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages,
Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus

Independence:  11 March 1990 (independence declared from Soviet Union);
6 September 1991 (Soviet Union recognizes Lithuania's independence)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16
February 1918 is the date of independence from German, Austrian, Prussian,
and Russian occupation, 11 March 1990 is the date of independence from
the Soviet Union

Constitution:  adopted 25 October 1992

Legal system:  based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed
to the constitutional court

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 26
February 1998) head of government: Premier Algirdas Mykolas BRAZAUSKAS
(since 3 July 2001) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the
president on the nomination of the premier elections: president elected
by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 December 1997
and 4 January 1998 (next to be held in late 2002); premier appointed
by the president on the approval of the Parliament election results:
Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote - Valdas ADAMKUS 50.4%,
Arturas PAULAUSKAS 49.6%

Legislative branch:  unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats,
71 members are directly elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by
proportional representation; members serve four-year terms) elections:
last held 8 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2004) election
results: percent of vote by party - Social Democratic Coalition 31.1%,
New Union-Social Liberals 19.6%, Liberal Union 17.2%, TS 8.6%, remaining
parties all less than 5%; seats by party - Social Democratic Coalition 52,
Liberal Union 34, New Union-Social Liberals 29, TS 9, Farmer's Party 4,
Center Union 2, Poles' Electoral Action 2, Modern Christian Democratic
Union 1, independents 3, others 5

Judicial branch:  Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal;
judges for all courts appointed by the President

Political parties and leaders:  Christian Democratic Party or LKDP
[Kazys BOBELIS, chairman]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles
[Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI, chairman]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party
or TS [Vytautas LANDSBERGIS, chairman]; Lithuanian Center Union or LCS
[Kestutis GLAVECKAS, chairman]; Lithuanian Farmer's Party or LUP [Ramunas
KARBAUSKIS, chairman]; Lithuanian Green Party [Rimantas BRAZIULIS];
Lithuanian Liberal Union [Eugenijus GENTVILAS, chairman]; Lithuanian
Liberal Youth [Neringa MOROZAITE]; Lithuanian National Democratic Party
[Vygintas GONTIS]; Lithuanian Social Democratic Coalition [Algirdas
BRAZAUSKAS, chairman] consists of the Lithuanian Democratic Labor
Party or LDDP, the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSPD, and New
Democracy; Moderate Conservative Union [Gediminas VAGNORIUS]; Modern
Christian Democratic Union [Vytautas BOGUSIS, chairman]; New Democracy and
Farmer's Union [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE, chairman]; New Union-Social Liberals
[Arturas PAULAUSKAS, chairman]; Young Lithuania [Arnoldas PLATELIS]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACCT (observer), BIS,
UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:   Ambassador Vygaudas USACKAS
consulate(s) general:  234-5860 chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington,
DC 20009

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
John F. TEFFT embassy: Akmenu 6, 2600 Vilnius mailing address: American
Embassy, Vilnius, PSC 78, Box V, APO AE 09723 telephone: [370] (2)
665-500 FAX: [370] (2) 665-510

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green,
and red

Economy Lithuania

Economy - overview:  Lithuania, the Baltic state that has conducted
the most trade with Russia, has been slowly rebounding from the 1998
Russian financial crisis. High unemployment, at 12.5% in 2001, and weak
consumption have held back recovery. Trade has been increasingly oriented
toward the West.  Lithuania has gained membership in the World Trade
Organization and has moved ahead with plans to join the EU. Privatization
of the large, state-owned utilities, particularly in the energy sector,
is underway.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $27.4 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4.8% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $7,600 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 9% industry: 32% services: 59%
(2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 25.6% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  34 (1999)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  1.3% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  1.5 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  industry 30%, agriculture 20%, services 50%
(1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:  12.5% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $1.59 billion expenditures: $1.77 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television
sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding
(small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers,
agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components,
computers, amber

Industrial production growth rate:  15% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  10.966 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 20.16% hydro: 3.06%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 76.78%

Electricity - consumption:  6.898 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  6.3 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  3 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables;
beef, milk, eggs; fish

Exports:  $4.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  mineral products 21%, textiles and clothing 19%,
machinery and equipment 11%, chemicals 8%, wood and wood products 6%,
foodstuffs 4% (2000)

Exports - partners:  Latvia 15%, Germany 14%, UK 8%, Russia 7%, Ukraine 5%

Imports:  $5.7 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  mineral products 23%, machinery and equipment 16%,
chemicals 9%, textiles and clothing 9%, transport equipment 9% (2000)

Imports - partners:  Russia 28%, Germany 15%, Poland 5%, France 4%, UK 4%

Debt - external:  $3.6 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $228.5 million (1995)

Currency:  litas (LTL)

Currency code:  LTL

Exchange rates:  litai per US dollar - 4.000 (fixed rate since 1 May
1994); note - litai is the plural of litas; effective 2 February 2002
the litas are pegged to the euro

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Lithuania

Telephones - main lines in use:  1.142 million (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  500,000 (2001)

Telephone system:  general assessment: inadequate, but is being modernized
to provide an improved international capability and better residential
access domestic:  completion; rural exchanges are being improved and
expanded; mobile cellular systems are being installed; access to the
Internet is available; still many unsatisfied telephone subscriber
applications international:  to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine
cable for further transmission by satellite

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:  1.9 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  27 note: Lithuania has approximately
27 broadcasting stations, but may have as many as 100 transmitters,
including repeater stations (2001)

Televisions:  1.7 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .lt

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  32 (2001)

Internet users:  341,000 (2001)

Transportation Lithuania

Railways:  total: 1,998 km broad gauge: 1,807 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km
electrified) narrow gauge: 169 km 0.750-m gauge (2001) standard gauge:
22 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:  total: 44,000 km paved: 35,500 km unpaved: 8,500 km (2001)

Waterways:  600 km (perennially navigable)

Pipelines:  crude oil, 105 km; natural gas 760 km (1992)

Ports and harbors:  Butinge, Kaunas, Klaipeda

Merchant marine:  total: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 279,743
GRT/304,156 DWT ships by type: cargo 25, combination bulk 8, petroleum
tanker 2, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 2,
short-sea passenger 3 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered
here as a flag of convenience: Denmark 13 (2002 est.)

Airports:  72 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 9 over 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m:
4 under 914 m: 3 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 63 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to
1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 55 (2001)

Military Lithuania

Military branches:  Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force,
National Volunteer Defense Forces (SKAT)

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 933,638 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 733,415
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 28,506
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $230.8 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.9% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Lithuania

Disputes - international:  the Russian Duma has not ratified 1997
boundary treaty; the Latvian Parliament has not ratified its 1998
maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over
oil exploration rights

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs
from Southwest Asia, Latin America, and Western Europe to Western Europe
and Scandinavia; limited production of methamphetamine and ecstasy

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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