World Online Education - World Portal : International Online Education Portal
Worldwide Online Education
International Online Education Portal
Learn About the World's Online Business, Education, Economy, Politics, Culture, Religion, Media and More









Online Business Education. Economy. Politics. Culture. Religion. Media

Jordan Flag

Country Profile

Capital City: Amman (pop. 1 million)

Other Cities: Irbid (pop. 281 000), Az-Zarqa (pop. 421 000)

Local Time: UTC +2h

Location Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia, east of Israel
Area: 92 300 sq km, (35 638 sq. mi.)
Border countries: Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Palestine (West Bank)

Climate: Mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Type: Constitutional Monarchy
Independence: 25 May 1946
Constitution: 8 January 1952

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Jordanian(s)
Population (est.): 5.0 million.
Ethnic groups: Mostly Arab but small communities of Circassians, Armenians, and Kurds.
Religions: Sunni Muslim 96%, Christian 4%.
Languages: Arabic (official), English.
Literacy: 90%


Currency: Jordanian Dinar (JOD)

Natural resources: Phosphates, potash, shale oil.

Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, citrus, tomatoes, melons, olives; sheep, goats, poultry.

Industries: Phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, potash, light manufacturing, tourism.

Exports partners:
USA 21.5%, Iraq 17.6%, Switzerland 6.5%, India 6.5%, Saudi Arabia 5.3% (2003).

Imports partners: Saudi Arabia 11.3%, China 7.9%, Germany 7.9%, USA 6.8%, Iraq 6.5% (2003)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Jordan

King Abdullah II

Queen Rania Al - Abdullah

HM Queen Noor of Jordan

HRH Prince Hassan Bin Talal

HM King Hussein I of Jordan

National Information System of Jordan

Diplomatic Missions
Embassy of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in the USA

Department of Statistics - DOS

Jordan Maps
Map of Jordan

Map of the Middle East region



Background:  For most of its history since independence from British
administration in 1946, Jordan was ruled by King HUSSEIN (1953-1999). A
pragmatic ruler, he successfully navigated competing pressures from
the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel,
and a large internal Palestinian population, through several wars and
coup attempts. In 1989 he resumed parliamentary elections and gradually
permitted political liberalization; in 1994 a formal peace treaty was
signed with Israel. King ABDALLAH II - the eldest son of King HUSSEIN
and Princess MUNA - assumed the throne following his father's death in
February 1999. Since then, he has consolidated his power and established
his domestic priorities.

Geography Jordan

Location:  Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates:  31 00 N, 36 00 E

Map references:  Middle East

Area:  total: 92,300 sq km water: 329 sq km land: 91,971 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:  total: 1,635 km border countries: Iraq 181 km, Israel
238 km, Saudi Arabia 744 km, Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km

Coastline:  26 km

Maritime claims:  territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate:  mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Terrain:  mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great
Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m highest point: Jabal
Ram 1,734 m

Natural resources:  phosphates, potash, shale oil

Land use:  arable land: 3% permanent crops: 1% other: 96% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  750 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  droughts; periodic earthquakes

Environment - current issues:  limited natural fresh water resources;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of
the selected agreements

Geography - note:  strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba
and as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Israel and
the occupied West Bank

People Jordan

Population:  5,307,470 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 36.6% (male 991,370; female 949,247) 15-64
years: 60% (male 1,698,568; female 1,485,261) 65 years and over: 3.4%
(male 90,186; female 92,838) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.89% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  24.58 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  2.62 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  6.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.97 male(s)/female total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  19.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   80.3 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  3.15 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Jordanian(s) adjective: Jordanian

Ethnic groups:  Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%

Religions:  Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 6% (majority Greek Orthodox,
but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox,
Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), other 2% (several
small Shi'a Muslim and Druze populations) (2001 est.)

Languages:  Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper
and middle classes

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 86.6% male: 93.4% female: 79.4% (1995 est.)

Government Jordan

Country name:  conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
conventional short form: Jordan local short form: Al Urdun local long
form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah former: Transjordan

Government type:  constitutional monarchy

Capital:  Amman

Administrative divisions:  12 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, 'Amman,
At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba

Independence:  25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British

National holiday:  Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

Constitution:  8 January 1952

Legal system:  based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review of
legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February
1999); Crown Prince HAMZAH (half brother of the monarch, born 29 March
1980) head of
 Prime Minister Ali Abul RAGHEB (since 19 June 2000) cabinet:  elections:
 none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by
the monarch

Legislative branch:  bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma
consists of the Senate, also called the House of Notables (Majlis
al-Aayan), a 40-member body appointed by the monarch from designated
categories of public figures; members serve four-year terms and the
House of Representatives, also called the House of Deputies (Majlis
al-Nuwaab), an 80-member body elected by popular vote on the basis of
proportional representation to serve four-year terms elections: House
of Representatives - last held 4 November 1997 (November 2001 election
postponed, next to be held NA) note: the House of Representatives has
been convened and dissolved by the monarch several times since 1974; in
November 1989, the first parliamentary elections in 22 years were held
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party -
NA%; seats by party - National Constitutional Party 2, Arab Land Party 1,
independents 75, other 2

Judicial branch:  Court of Cassation; Supreme Court (court of final

Political parties and leaders:  Al-Umma (Nation) Party [Ahmad al-HANANDEH,
secretary general]; Arab Land Party [Dr.  Muhammad al-'ORAN, secretary
general]; Jordanian Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'id DHIYAB,
secretary general]; National Constitutional Party [Abdul Hadi MAJALI,
secretary general]; Islamic Action Front [Abd al latif al-ARABIYAT,
secretary general]; National Action (Haqq) Party [Muhammad al-ZUBI,
secretary general]; (Arab) Socialist Ba'th Party [Taysif al-HIMSI,
secretary general]; Jordanian People's Democratic (Hashd) Party [Salim
al-NAHHAS, secretary general]; Pan-Arab (Democratic) Movement [Mahmud
al-NUWAYHI, secretary general]; Constitutional Front [Mahdi al-TALL,
secretary general]; Jordanian Progressive Party [Fawwaz al-ZUBI, secretary
general]; Communist Party [Munir HAMARINAH, secretary general]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Jordanian Press Association
[Sayf al-SHARIF, president]; Muslim Brotherhood [Abd-al-Majid DHUNAYBAT,
secretary general]; Anti-Normalization Committee [Ali Abu SUKKAR,
president vice chairman]; Jordanian Bar Association [Saleh ARMOUTI,

International organization participation:  ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Marwan Jamil MUASHER chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington,
DC 20008 FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110 telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664

Diplomatic representation from the US:   Ambassador Edward William
GNEHM, Jr.  embassy:  AE 09892-0200 telephone: [962] (6) 5920101 FAX:
[962] (6) 5920121

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of black (top, the
Abbassid Caliphate of Islam), white (the Ummayyad Caliphate of Islam),
and green (the Fatimid Caliphate of Islam) with a red isosceles triangle
(representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916) based on the hoist side
bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of
the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran; the seven points on the
star represent faith in One God, humanity, national spirit, humility,
social justice, virtue, and aspirations

Economy Jordan

Economy - overview:  Jordan is a small Arab country with inadequate
supplies of water and other natural resources such as oil. Debt,
poverty, and unemployment are fundamental problems, but King ABDALLAH
since assuming the throne in 1999 has undertaken some broad economic
reforms in a long-term effort to improve living standards. Amman in the
past three years has signed on to an IMF agreement, practiced careful
monetary policy, and made significant headway with privatization. The
government also has liberalized the trade regime sufficiently to secure
Jordan's membership in the WTrO, an association agreement with the EU,
and a free trade accord with US. These measures have helped improve
productivity and have put Jordan on the foreign investment map. Ongoing
challenges include fiscal adjustment to reduce the budget deficit and
broader investment incentives to promote job-creating ventures.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $21.6 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  2.8% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $4,200 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 3.7% industry: 26% services:
70.3% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  30% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 29.8% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  36.4 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  1.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  1.26 million note: in addition, at least 300,000 workers
are employed abroad (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 82.5%, industry 12.5%, agriculture
5% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:  16% official rate; actual rate is 25%-30% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $2.9 billion expenditures: $3.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash,
light manufacturing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:  3.9% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  6.932 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 99.44% hydro: 0.56%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  7.092 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  5 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  650 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, barley, citrus, tomatoes, melons, olives;
sheep, goats, poultry

Exports:  $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  phosphates, fertilizers, potash, agricultural
products, manufactures, pharmaceuticals

Exports - partners:  India, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, EU, US, Indonesia, UAE,
Lebanon, Kuwait, Syria, Ethiopia

Imports:  $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, food,
live animals, manufactured goods

Imports - partners:  Iraq, Germany, US, Saudi Arabia, Japan, UK, Italy,
Turkey, Malaysia, Syria, China

Debt - external:  $7.9 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  ODA, $850 million (1996 est.)

Currency:  Jordanian dinar (JOD)

Currency code:  JOD

Exchange rates:  Jordanian dinars per US dollar - 0.7090 (1996-present
) note: since May 1989, the Jordanian dinar has been pegged to a group
of currencies

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Jordan

Telephones - main lines in use:  403,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  11,500 (1995)

Telephone system:  general assessment: service has improved recently with
the increased use of digital switching equipment, but better access to
the telephone system is needed in the rural areas and easier access to
pay telephones is needed by the urban public domestic: microwave radio
relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk
lines; considerable use of mobile cellular systems; Internet service is
available international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat,
and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals; fiber-optic cable to Saudi
Arabia and microwave radio relay link with Egypt and Syria; connection to
international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe);
participant in MEDARABTEL; international links total about 4,000

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1999)

Radios:  1.66 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  20 (plus 96 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:  500,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .jo

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  5 (2000)

Internet users:  210,000 (2001)

Transportation Jordan

Railways:  total: 677 km narrow gauge: 677 km 1.050-m gauge (2001)

Highways:  total: 8,000 km paved: 8,000 km unpaved: 0 km (2000 est.)

Waterways:  none

Pipelines:  crude oil 209 km; note - may not be in use

Ports and harbors:  Al 'Aqabah

Merchant marine:  total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 41,206
GRT/53,401 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 3, container 1, roll on/roll
off 2 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag
of convenience: Airports:  18 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 15 over 3,047 m: 7 2,438 to 3,047
m: 6 under 914 m: 1 (2001) 914 to 1,523 m: 1

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 3 under 914 m: 3 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Jordan

Military branches:  Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF) Royal Jordanian
Land Force, Royal Naval Force, Royal Jordanian Air Force, and Special
Operations Command or Socom); note - Public Security Directorate normally
falls under Ministry of Interior but comes under JAF in wartime or
crisis situations

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,517,751 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,073,991
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 57,131
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $757.5 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  8.6% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Jordan

Disputes - international:  none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

Jordan News
Ad-Dustour Newspaper


Jordan Times

Petra News Agency

The Star

Arts & Culture
Khalid Shoman Foundation. Darat al Funun

The Jerash Festival

Business & Economy
Central Bank of Jordan

ASE Amman Stock Exchange

Ministry of Industry and Trade

Amman Chamber of Commerce

Jordan Investment Promotion Corporation (IPC)

Royal Jordanian

Royal Wings

Destination Jordan - Country Guides
Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities

Jordan Tourism Board

National Information System of Jordan

Discover Jordan

Jordan Eco Tours

Petra Tours

Al-Ahliyya Amman University

Philadelphia University

University of Jordan

Jordan Astronomical Society (JAS)

National Library

Royal Institute for Interfaith Studies

Royal Scientific Society (RSS)

ArabNet's Jordan page

Franciscan Archaeological Insitute


Newsgroup of Jordan




Education Resources

Natural Stone Veneer
Stone Directory

Las Vegas Graphics & Web Design
Las Vegas Graphic & Web Design
Graphic Design & Web Design in Las Vegas

Dentures. Complete Dentures. Partial Dentures.
 Complete Dentures
 Partial Dentures

Leadership Courses & Management Courses in Las Vegas USA
Management Training Courses in Las Vegas USA
Leadership Training & Management Courses in Las Vegas

Management  Best Practices
Management Best Practices

Management Consulting Courses
Management Consulting Courses

Management Training Courses
Management Training Courses

Business School Online
Online Business Schools

Open Courseware
Free Open Courses

Online Business Courses
Business Schools Online

Business Management Courses
Business Management Courses

CEO Magazine
CEO Magazine

CEO Library
CEO Library

CEO Club
Executive Networking

CEO Books
CEO Books

MBA Review
Review of MBA Programs

Best MBA
Ranking of World's Best MBA Programs

MBA distance Learning
Online MBA

Top Ranking MBA
Ranking of Top MBA Programs

Online Executive MBA
Online Executive MBA Programs

Accelerated MBA
Accelerated MBA Programs

Las Vegas Web Design
Las Vegas Web Design