World Online Education - World Portal : International Online Education Portal
Worldwide Online Education
International Online Education Portal
Learn About the World's Online Business, Education, Economy, Politics, Culture, Religion, Media and More









Online Business Education. Economy. Politics. Culture. Religion. Media

Flag of Iran

Country Profile

Capital City: Tehran

Other Cities: Isfahan, Tabriz, Mashhad, Shiraz.

Local Time: UTC +3.5h

Location: Middle East bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea.
Area: 1.6 million sq. km. (636,294 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Desert and mountains.

Border countries
: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan

Climate: Semiarid; subtropical along the Caspian coast.

Type: Islamic republic.
Independence: 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)
Constitution: Ratified December 1979, revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership.

Nationality: Iranian(s).
Population (2005 est.): 69 million.
GNI per capita PPP: $ 8 065 (year) Ethnic groups: Persians 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%. Religions: Shi'a Muslim 89%; Sunni Muslim 9%; Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i 2%. Languages: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other. Literacy: 80%


Currency: Iranian Rial (IRR)

Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur.

Agriculture products: Wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar.

Industries: Petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabrication, armaments.

Exports partners:
Japan 20%, China 9.9%, Italy 6.3%, South Africa 6.3%, Taiwan 4.8%, Turkey 4.7%, South Korea 4.7%, France 4.3%, Netherlands 4.3% (2004)

Imports partners: Germany 13%, France 8.9%, Italy 8%, China 7.7%, UAE 6.4%, South Korea 6.3%, Russia 4.9% (2004)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Iran

Presidency of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Diplomatic Missions
Mission of The Islamic Republic of Iran to the UN

The Embassy of The Islamic Republic of Iran

Statistical Centre of Iran (SCI)

Islamic Republic Of Iran Meteorological Organization

Map of Iran

Map of the Middle East region



Background:  Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic
in 1979 after the ruling shah was forced into exile. Conservative clerical
forces subsequently crushed westernizing liberal elements. Militant
Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran on 4 November 1979 and
held it until 20 January 1981. During 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody,
indecisive war with Iraq over disputed territory. Key current issues
affecting the country include the pace of accepting outside modernizing
influences and reconciliation between clerical control of the regime
and popular government participation and widespread demands for reform.

Geography Iran

Location:  Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf,
and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates:  32 00 N, 53 00 E

Map references:  Middle East

Area:  total: 1.648 million sq km land: 1.636 million sq km water:
12,000 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries:  total: 5,440 km border countries: Afghanistan 936 km,
Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave
179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km

Coastline:  2,440 km; note - Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12
NM continental shelf: natural prolongation exclusive economic zone:
bilateral agreements or median lines in the Persian Gulf

Climate:  mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain:  rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts,
mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m highest point:
kuh-e Damavand 5,671 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use:  arable land: 10% permanent crops: 1% other: 89% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  75,620 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms;
earthquakes along western border and in the northeast

Environment - current issues:  air pollution, especially in urban areas,
from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents;
deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the
Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought; soil degradation (salination);
inadequate supplies of potable water; water pollution from raw sewage
and industrial waste; urbanization

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed,
but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine
Life Conservation

Geography - note:  strategic location on the Persian Gulf and Strait of
Hormuz, which are vital maritime pathways for crude oil transport

People Iran

Population:  66,622,704 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:   31.6% (male 10,753,218; female 10,273,015) 15-64 years:
(male 1,633,016; female 1,483,606) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.77% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  17.54 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  5.39 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -4.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
1.1 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  28.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   71.69 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.01 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Iranian(s) adjective: Iranian

Ethnic groups:  Persian 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%,
Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%

Religions:  Shi'a Muslim 89%, Sunni Muslim 10%, Zoroastrian, Jewish,
Christian, and Baha'i 1%

Languages:  Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects
26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 72.1% male: 78.4% female: 65.8% (1994 est.)

Government Iran

Country name:   Islamic Republic of Iran conventional short form:
former: Persia

Government type:  theocratic republic

Capital:  Tehran

Administrative divisions:  28 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan);
Ardabil, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi, Azarbayjan-e Sharqi, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall
va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Golestan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam,
Kerman, Kermanshah, Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad,
Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Sistan
va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan

Independence:  1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)

National holiday:  Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Constitution:  2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the
presidency and eliminate the prime ministership

Legal system:  the Constitution codifies Islamic principles of government

Suffrage:  15 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Leader of the Islamic Revolution
Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989) elections: leader of
the Islamic Revolution appointed for life by the Assembly of Experts;
president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last
held 8 June 2001 (next to be held NA 2005) election results: (Ali)
Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani reelected president; percent of vote - (Ali)
Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani 77% cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by
the president with legislative approval head of government: President
(Ali) Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani (since 3 August 1997); First Vice
President Dr.  Mohammad Reza AREF-YAZDI (since 26 August 2001)

Legislative branch:  unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly or
Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami (290 seats, note - changed from 270 seats
with the 18 February 2000 election; members elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms) elections: last held 18 February-NA April 2000
(next to be held NA 2004) election results: percent of vote - NA%;
seats by party - reformers 170, conservatives 45, and independents 10,
65 seats up for runoff; note - election on 5 May 2000 (reformers 52,
conservatives 10, independents 3)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:  the following organizations appeared to
have achieved considerable success at elections to the sixth Majlis in
early 2000: Assembly of the Followers of the Imam's Line, Freethinkers'
Front, Islamic Iran Participation Front, Moderation and Development Party,
Servants of Construction Party, Society of Self-sacrificing Devotees

Political pressure groups and leaders:  active student groups include
the pro-reform "Organization for Strengthening Unity" and "the Union of
Islamic Student Societies'; groups that generally support the Islamic
Republic include Ansar-e Hizballah, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution,
Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam, and the Islamic Coalition
Association; opposition groups include the Liberation Movement of
Iran and the Nation of Iran party; armed political groups that have
been almost completely repressed by the government include Mojahedin-e
Khalq Organization (MEK), People's Fedayeen, Democratic Party of Iranian
Kurdistan; the Society for the Defense of Freedom

International organization participation:  CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none; note - Iran has an Interests
Section in the Pakistani Embassy; address: Iranian Interests Section,
Pakistani Embassy, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007;
telephone: [1] (202) 965-4990

Diplomatic representation from the US:  none; note - protecting power
in Iran is Switzerland

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah
in the shape of a tulip, a symbol of martyrdom) in red is centered in
the white band; ALLAH AKBAR (God is Great) in white Arabic script is
repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times
along the top edge of the red band

Economy Iran

Economy - overview:  Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning,
state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture,
and small-scale private trading and service ventures. President KHATAMI
has continued to follow the market reform plans of former President
RAFSANJANI and has indicated that he will pursue diversification of
Iran's oil-reliant economy although he has made little progress toward
that goal. The strong oil market in 1996 helped ease financial pressures
on Iran and allowed for Tehran's timely debt service payments. Iran's
financial situation tightened in 1997 and deteriorated further in
1998 because of lower oil prices. The subsequent rise in oil prices
in 1999-2000 afforded Iran fiscal breathing room but does not solve
Iran's structural economic problems, including the encouragement of
foreign investment.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $426 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  5% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $6,400 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 20% industry: 24% services:
56% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  53% (1996 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  13% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  18 million note: shortage of skilled labor (1998)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45%
(2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:  14% (1999 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $24 billion expenditures: $22 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other
construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining
and vegetable oil production), metal fabricating, armaments

Industrial production growth rate:  5.5% (2001 nonoil est.)

Electricity - production:  120.33 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 94.24% hydro: 5.76%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  111.907 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits,
nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar

Exports:  $27.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  petroleum 85%, carpets, fruits and nuts, iron
and steel, chemicals

Exports - partners:  Japan 20.5%, Italy 7%, UAE 5.9%, France 4.7%,
China 4.1% (1999)

Imports:  $17.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  industrial raw materials and intermediate goods,
capital goods, foodstuffs and other consumer goods, technical services,
military supplies

Imports - partners:  Germany 11%, Italy 8.3%, China 6.1%, Japan 5.3%,
UAE 5% (1999)

Debt - external:  $7.3 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $116.5 million (1995)

Currency:  Iranian rial (IRR)

Currency code:  IRR

Exchange rates:  from 1997 to 2001, Iran had a multi-exchange-rate system;
one of these rates, the official floating exchange rate, by which most
essential goods were imported, averaged 1,750 rials per US dollar; in
March 2002, the multi-exchange-rate system was converged into one rate
at about 7,900 rials per US dollar

Fiscal year:  21 March - 20 March

Communications Iran

Telephones - main lines in use:  6.313 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  265,000 (August 1998)

Telephone system:  general assessment: inadequate but currently being
modernized and expanded with the goal of not only improving the efficiency
and increasing the volume of the urban service but also bringing telephone
service to several thousand villages, not presently connected domestic:
the number of long-distance channels in the microwave radio relay trunk
has grown substantially; many villages have been brought into the net;
the number of main lines in the urban systems has approximately doubled;
and thousands of mobile cellular subscribers are being served; moreover,
the technical level of the system has been raised by the installation of
thousands of digital switches international: HF radio and microwave radio
relay to Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Syria,
Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; submarine fiber-optic cable to UAE
with access to Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); Trans-Asia-Europe
(TAE) fiber-optic line runs from Azerbaijan through the northern portion
of Iran to Turkmenistan with expansion to Georgia and Azerbaijan;
satellite earth stations - 9 Intelsat and 4 Inmarsat; Internet service
available but limited to electronic mail to promote Iranian culture

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 72, FM 5, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios:  17 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  28 (plus 450 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:  4.61 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .ir

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  8 (2000)

Internet users:  250,000 (2001)

Transportation Iran

Railways:  total: 6,130 km broad gauge: 94 km 1.676-m gauge standard
gauge: 6,036 km 1.435-m gauge (187 km electrified) note: broad-gauge
track is employed at the borders with Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan which
have broad-gauge rail systems; 41 km of the standard-gauge, electrified
track is in suburban service at Tehran (2001)

Highways:  total: 140,200 km paved: 49,440 km (including 470 km of
expressways) unpaved: 90,760 km (1998 est.)

Waterways:  904 km note: the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by
maritime traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 m and
is in use

Pipelines:  crude oil 5,900 km; petroleum products 3,900 km; natural
gas 4,550 km

Ports and harbors:  Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88
war), Ahvaz, Bandar 'Abbas, Bandar-e Anzali, Bushehr, Bandar-e Emam
Khomeyni, Bandar-e Lengeh, Bandar-e Mahshahr, Bandar-e Torkaman, Chabahar
(Bandar Beheshti), Jazireh-ye Khark, Jazireh-ye Lavan, Jazireh-ye Sirri,
Khorramshahr (limited operation since November 1992), Now Shahr

Merchant marine:  total: 147 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,136,971
GRT/7,166,703 DWT ships by type: bulk 48, cargo 36, chemical tanker 4,
container 10, liquefied gas 1, multi-functional large-load carrier 6,
petroleum tanker 30, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea
passenger 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  322 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 118 over 3,047 m: 40 2,438 to
3,047 m: 24 914 to 1,523 m: 23 under 914 m: 7 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 24

Airports - with unpaved runways:   1 2,438 to 3,047 m: Heliports:  11

Military Iran

Military branches:  Islamic Republic of Iran regular forces (includes
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force and Air Defense Command), Iranian
Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) (includes Ground Forces, Air Force,
Navy, Qods [special operations], and Basij [Popular Mobilization Army]
forces), Law Enforcement Forces

Military manpower - military age:  21 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 18,868,571 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 11,192,731
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 823,041
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $9.7 billion (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  3.1% (FY00)

Transnational Issues Iran

Disputes - international:  despite restored diplomatic relations in
1990, Iran lacks maritime boundary with Iraq and disputes land boundary,
navigation channels, and other issues from eight-year war; UAE seeks
United Arab League and other international support against Iran's
occupation of Greater Tunb Island (called Tunb al Kubra in Arabic by
UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran) and Lesser Tunb
Island (called Tunb as Sughra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e
Kuchek in Persian by Iran) and attempts to occupy completely a jointly
administered island in the Persian Gulf (called Abu Musa in Arabic by UAE
and Jazireh-ye Abu Musa in Persian by Iran); Iran insists on division of
Caspian Sea into five equal sectors while Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia,
and Turkmenistan have generally agreed upon equidistant seabed boundaries;
Iran threatens to conduct oil exploration in Azerbaijani-claimed waters,
while interdicting Azerbaijani activities

Illicit drugs:  despite substantial interdiction efforts, Iran remains a
key transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin to Europe; domestic
narcotics consumption remains a persistent problem and Iranian press
reports estimate at least 1.8 million drug users in the country

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

The Iranian

Iran Daily

Iran Press Service

Iran va Jahan

Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA)

RahNema News

Teheran Times

Arts & Culture
Carpet Museum of Iran

Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization

Iranian Cultural & Information Center

Business & Economy
Central Bank of Iran

Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE )

Iran Chamber of Commerce, Industries and Mines


Destination Iran - Travel and Tour Guides
Iran Tourism & Touring Organization


Bize village



ACM Teheran

Shahid Beheshti University

Sharif University of Technology

Shiraz University

University of Teheran

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Geological Survey of Iran (GSI)

Green Party of Iran Environment

Green Front of Iran

International Institute for Caspian Studies

Iran History

Iran's history in brief

The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS)


Reza Abbasi Museum

Iran, History, Land and People


Iran Online

Pars Times

Persian Links

Newsgroup of Iran




Education Resources

Natural Stone Veneer
Stone Directory

Las Vegas Graphics & Web Design
Las Vegas Graphic & Web Design
Graphic Design & Web Design in Las Vegas

Dentures. Complete Dentures. Partial Dentures.
 Complete Dentures
 Partial Dentures

Leadership Courses & Management Courses in Las Vegas USA
Management Training Courses in Las Vegas USA
Leadership Training & Management Courses in Las Vegas

Management  Best Practices
Management Best Practices

Management Consulting Courses
Management Consulting Courses

Management Training Courses
Management Training Courses

Business School Online
Online Business Schools

Open Courseware
Free Open Courses

Online Business Courses
Business Schools Online

Business Management Courses
Business Management Courses

CEO Magazine
CEO Magazine

CEO Library
CEO Library

CEO Club
Executive Networking

CEO Books
CEO Books

MBA Review
Review of MBA Programs

Best MBA
Ranking of World's Best MBA Programs

MBA distance Learning
Online MBA

Top Ranking MBA
Ranking of Top MBA Programs

Online Executive MBA
Online Executive MBA Programs

Accelerated MBA
Accelerated MBA Programs

Las Vegas Web Design
Las Vegas Web Design