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Indonesia's National  Flag

Country Profile

Capital City: Jakarta on the island of Java (pop. est. 8.8 million)

Other Cities: Surabaya, Medan, Bandung

Local Time: UTC +7h to UTC +9h

Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world. It consists of five major islands and about 30 smaller groups.
Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
Largest islands: Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan (Borneo), Sulawesi (Celebes), New Guinea.
Area: 2 million sq. km. (736 000 sq. mi.).
Terrain: More than 17 000 islands; 6 000 are inhabited; 1 000 of which are permanently settled. Large islands consist of coastal plains with mountainous interiors.
Border countries: Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Timor-Leste

tropical; hot, humid; cooler in the highlands.

Type: Independent republic.
Independence: 17 August 1945 Indonesia proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, the country became legally independent from the Netherlands.
Constitution: 1945.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Indonesian(s).
Population (2004 est.): 238 500 000
Ethnic groups: 45% Javanese, 14% Sudanese, 7.5% Madurese and 26% other ethnic groups.
Religions: Islam 87%, Protestant 6%, Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist and other 1%.
Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, akin to Malay), English, Dutch, plus 583 dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese. Literacy: 88.5


: Indonesian Rupiah (IDR)

Natural resources: Petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver.

Agriculture products: Rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, poultry, beef, pork, eggs.

Industries: Petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism.

Exports partners:
Japan 22.3%, USA 12.1%, Singapore 8.9%, South Korea 7.1%, China 6.2% (2003)

Imports partners: Japan 13%, Singapore 12.8%, China 9.1%, USA 8.3%, Thailand 5.2%, Australia 5.1%, South Korea 4.7%, Saudi Arabia 4.6% (2003)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Indonesia

Indonesia Government

Department of Foreign Affairs

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of Indonesia to the UN

Embassy of Indonesia Canada

Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia in thje U.S.

Indonesian Missions Worldwide

Foreign Missions in Indonesia

BPS - Badan Pusat Statistik

Official Websites of Regional Governments:

Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam

Propinsi Bengkulu

Propinsi Riau

Propinsi Lampung Province

DKI Jakarta Province

Jawa Barat

Propinsi DI Yogyakarta Province

Jawa Tengah


Bali ProvincePropinsi Bali

Sulawesi (Celebes)
Pemerintah Propinsi Sulawesi Utara

Kalimantan Timur

Pemerintah Provinsi Kalimantan Barat

Provinsi Kalsel

Irian Jaya (New Guinea)
Pemerintah Provinsi Papua - The Government of Papua Province

Map of Indonesia

Administrative Regions of Indonesia

Small Map of Indonesia



Background:  The world's largest archipelago, Indonesia achieved
independence from the Netherlands in 1949. Current issues include:
implementing IMF-mandated reforms of the banking sector, effecting
a transition to a popularly-elected government after four decades of
authoritarianism, addressing charges of cronyism and corruption, holding
the military accountable for human rights violations, and resolving
growing separatist pressures in Aceh and Irian Jaya. On 30 August 1999
a provincial referendum for independence was overwhelmingly approved by
the people of Timor Timur. Concurrence followed by Indonesia's national
legislature, and the name East Timor was provisionally adopted. On 20 May
2002, East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state.

Geography Indonesia

Location:  Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and
the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates:  5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references:  Southeast Asia

Area:  total: 1,919,440 sq km water: 93,000 sq km land: 1,826,440 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:  total: 2,830 km border countries: East Timor 228 km,
Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline:  54,716 km

Maritime claims:  measured from claimed archipelagic baselines exclusive
economic zone: Climate:  tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain:  mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point:
Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite,
copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use:  arable land: 10% permanent crops: 7% other: 83% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  48,150 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis,
earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; water pollution from
industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze
from forest fires

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified:
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:  archipelago of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited);
straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes
from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

People Indonesia

Population:  231,328,092 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate:  1.54% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  21.87 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  6.28 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:   NA 65 years and over: Infant mortality rate:  39.4
deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   71.13 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.54 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.05% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  52,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  3,100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Indonesian(s) adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups:  Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal
Malays 7.5%, other 26%

Religions:  Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%,
Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1998)

Languages:  Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English,
Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 83.8% male: 89.6% female: 78% (1995 est.)

Government Indonesia

Country name:   Republic of Indonesia conventional short form:  Indies;
Dutch East Indies local short form: Indonesia

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Jakarta

Administrative divisions:  27 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular -
propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah
istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota);
Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa
Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan,
Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Lampung,
Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua,
Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi
Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*; note
- with the implementation of decentralization on 1 January 2001, the 357
districts (regencies) have become the key administrative units responsible
for providing most government services note: following the 30 August
1999 provincial referendum for independence which was overwhelmingly
approved by the people of Timor Timur and the October 1999 concurrence
of Indonesia's national legislature, the name East Timor was adopted as
a provisional name for the political entity formerly known as Propinsi
Timor Timur; East Timor gained its formal independence on 20 May 2002

Independence:  17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December
1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution:  August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949
and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system:  based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless
of age

Executive branch:  chief of state: President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since
23 July 2001) and Vice President Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note
- the president is both the chief of state and head of government head
of government:  Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note - the president
is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet
appointed by the president elections: president and vice president elected
separately by the People's Consultative Assembly or MPR for five-year
terms; selection of president last held 23 July 2001 (next to be held
NA 2006); selection of vice president last held 26 July 2001 (next
to be held NA 2006) note:  MPR) includes the House of Representatives
(Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) plus 200 indirectly selected members;
it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president and
to approve broad outlines of national policy and also has yearly meetings
to consider constitutional and legislative changes election results:
MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri elected president, receiving 591 votes in favor
(91 abstentions); Hamzah HAZ elected vice president, receiving 340 votes
in favor (237 against)

Legislative branch:  unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan
Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (500 seats; 462 elected by popular vote, 38
are appointed military representatives; members serve five-year terms)
election results:  10.7%, PAN 7.3%, PBB 1.8%, other 4.5%; seats by party -
PDI-P 154, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB 51, PAN 35, PBB 14, other 30; note -
subsequent to the election, there has been a change in the distribution
of seats; the new distribution is: PDI-P 153, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB
51, PAN 35, PBB 13, other 32 elections: last held 7 June 1999 (next to
be held NA 2004)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by
the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature); note
- the Supreme Court is preparing to assume administrative responsibility
for the federal court system, previously run by the executive

Political parties and leaders:  Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB
[Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA, chairman]; Federation of Functional Groups
or Golkar [Akbar TANDJUNG, general chairman]; Indonesia Democracy
Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri, chairperson]; National
Awakening Party or PKB [Alwi SHIHAB, chairman]; National Mandate Party or
PAN [Amien RAIS, chairman]; United Development Party or PPP (federation
of former Islamic parties) [Hamzah HAZ, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador SOEMADI
Brotodiningrat chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20036 consulate(s) general:  (202) 775-5365 telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Ralph L. BOYCE embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, APO AP 96520 telephone: [62] (21)
3435-9000 FAX: [62] (21) 385-7189 consulate(s) general: Surabaya

Flag description:  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white;
similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the
flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

Economy Indonesia

Economy - overview:  Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, faces severe
economic development problems, stemming from secessionist movements and
the low level of security in the regions, the lack of reliable legal
recourse in contract disputes, corruption, weaknesses in the banking
system, and strained relations with the IMF. Investor confidence will
remain low and few new jobs will be created under these circumstances. In
November 2001, Indonesia agreed with the IMF on a series of economic
reforms in 2002, thus enabling further IMF disbursements.  Keys to
future growth remain internal reform, the build-up of the confidence
of international donors and investors, and a strong comeback in the
global economy.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $687 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $3,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 17% industry: 41% services:
42% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  27% (1999)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.7% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  31.7 (1999)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  11.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  99 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39%
(1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:  8% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $26 billion expenditures: $30 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries:  petroleum and natural gas; textiles, apparel, and footwear;
mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood; rubber; food; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:  3.5% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  92.575 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 81.02% hydro: 14.04%
other: 4.94% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  86.095 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa,
coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs

Exports:  $56.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood,
textiles, rubber

Exports - partners:  Japan 23.4%, US 13.8%, Singapore 10.7%, South Korea
7%, China 4.5%, Malaysia 3.2% (2000 est.)

Imports:  $38.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment; chemicals, fuels,

Imports - partners:  Japan 16.3%, Singapore 11.4%, US 10.2%, South Korea
6.3%, China 6.1%, Australia 5.1% (2000 est.)

Debt - external:  $135 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $43 billion from IMF program and other official
external financing (1997-2000)

Currency:  Indonesian rupiah (IDR)

Currency code:  IDR

Exchange rates:  Indonesian rupiahs per US dollar - 10,377.3 (January
2002), 10,260.9 (2001), 8,421.8 (2000), 7,855.2 (1999), 10,013.6 (1998),
2,909.4 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year; note - previously was 1 April - 31 March,
but starting with 2001, has been changed to calendar year

Communications Indonesia

Telephones - main lines in use:  5,588,310 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  1.07 million (1998)

Telephone system:  general assessment: domestic service fair,
international service good domestic: interisland microwave system and HF
radio police net; domestic satellite communications system international:
satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)

Radios:  31.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  41 (1999)

Televisions:  13.75 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .id

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  24 (2000)

Internet users:  2 million (2001)

Transportation Indonesia

Railways:  total: 6,458 km narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km
electrified; 101 km double-track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2001)

Highways:  total: 342,700 km paved: 158,670 km unpaved: 184,030 km (1997)

Waterways:  21,579 km total note: Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820
km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Pipelines:  crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas
1,703 km (1989)

Ports and harbors:  Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Makassar,
Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya

Merchant marine:  total: 668 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
2,969,281 GRT/4,043,526 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships
registered here as a flag of convenience: Greece 1, Hong Kong 2, India 1,
Japan 2, Malaysia 1, Monaco 3, Panama 1, Philippines 1, Singapore 11,
South Korea 1, Switzerland 1, UK 2, US 1 (2002 est.)  ships by type:
bulk 41, cargo 392, chemical tanker 12, container 32, liquefied gas 3,
livestock carrier 1, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 14, petroleum tanker
126, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 15, short-sea passenger 8,
specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 6

Airports:  490 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 156 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to
3,047 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 48 under 914 m: 45 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 46

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 339 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to
1,523 m: 27 under 914 m: 309 (2001)

Heliports:  6 (2001)

Military Indonesia

Military branches:  Army, Navy (including marines and naval air arm),
Air Force

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 65,013,184 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 37,942,329
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 2,263,706
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $1 billion (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.3% (FY98/99)

Transnational Issues Indonesia

Disputes - international:  Sipadan and Ligitan islands dispute
with Malaysia remains with the ICJ for arbitration since 1998; East
Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee meets to survey and delimit land
boundary; Indonesia seeks resolution of East Timor refugees in Indonesia;
Australia-East Timor-Indonesia are working to resolve maritime boundary
and sharing of seabed resources in "Timor Gap"

Illicit drugs:  illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use;
possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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History of Indonesia

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