World Online Education - World Portal : International Online Education Portal
Worldwide Online Education
International Online Education Portal
Learn About the World's Online Business, Education, Economy, Politics, Culture, Religion, Media and More









Online Business Education. Economy. Politics. Culture. Religion. Media

Flag of India; click to enlarge

Country Profile

Capital City: New Delhi
The Municipality of New Delhi (pop. 11 million).

Other Cities:
Mumbay Bombay
Mumbai Metropolitan Region (formerly Bombay, pop. 15 million)
Chennai, formerly Madras (pop. 6 million), Calcutta (12 million); ; Bangalore (5 million); Hyderabad (5 million); Ahmedabad (3.7 million)

Local Time: UTC +5:30h

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan.
Area: 3.3 million sq. km. (1.3 million sq. mi.)
Terrain: varies from Himalayas to flat river valleys.
Border countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma (Myanmar), China (Xizang - Tibet Autonomous Region), Nepal, Pakistan

Climate: Varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north.

Federal Republic
Independence: 15 August 1947 (from United Kingdom).

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Indian(s).
Population (1999 est.): one billion; urban population 32%.
Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid 2%, others.
Religions: Hindu 81.3%, Muslim 12%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5%.
Languages: Hindi, English, and 16 other official languages. Literacy: 65%.


Currency: Indian Rupee (INR)

Natural resources: Coal, iron, manganese, mica, bauxite, chromite, thorium, limestone, barite, titanium ore, diamonds, crude oil.

Agriculture products: Rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish.

Industries: Textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software.

India's Exports partners:
USA 18.06%, UAE 8.01%, Hong Kong 5.12%, UK 4.78%, China 4.66%, Germany 3.98%; (2003-2004; Source: India Trade Promotion Organisation)

India's Imports partners: USA 6.31%, China 5.26%, Belgium 5.05%, Switzerland 4.29%, UK 4.12%, Germany 3.78%; (2003-2004; Source: India Trade Promotion Organisation)

Internet Links

Official Sites of India

Prime Minister's Office

Indian Parliament

India Image


Bombay High Court

Ministry of External Affairs

Permanent Mission of India to the UN

Embassy of India in the U.S.

India's Diplomatic Missions Abroad

Census of India

Department of Statistics

Map of India

Maps of India

Map of Asia



Background:  The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the
world, goes back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest
invaded about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier inhabitants created
the classical Indian culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century
and Turkish in 12th were followed by European traders beginning in the
late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political
control of virtually all Indian lands.  Nonviolent resistance to British
colonialism under Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU led to independence
in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India
and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the
two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate
nation of Bangladesh. Fundamental concerns in India include the ongoing
dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental
degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife, all
this despite impressive gains in economic investment and output.

Geography India

Location:  Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal,
between Burma and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates:  20 00 N, 77 00 E

Map references:  Asia

Area:  total: 3,287,590 sq km land: 2,973,190 sq km water: 314,400 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly more than one-third the size of the US

Land boundaries:  total: 14,103 km border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km,
Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan
2,912 km

Coastline:  7,000 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Terrain:  upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain
along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point:
Kanchenjunga 8,598 m

Natural resources:  coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore,
manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds,
petroleum, limestone, arable land

Land use:  arable land: 54% permanent crops: 3% other: 43% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  590,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and
destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms;

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing;
desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle
emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural
pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and
growing population is overstraining natural resources

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of
the selected agreements

Geography - note:  dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important
Indian Ocean trade routes

People India

Population:  1,045,845,226 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:   32.7% (male 175,858,386; female 165,724,901) 15-64 years:
(male 24,975,465; female 24,265,514) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.51% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  23.79 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  8.62 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
1.03 male(s)/female total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  61.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   63.93 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.98 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.7% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  3.7 million (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  310,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Indian(s) adjective: Indian

Ethnic groups:  Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%

Religions:  Hindu 81.3%, Muslim 12%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other
groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5% (2000)

Languages:  English enjoys associate status but is the most important
language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindu
is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there
are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu,
Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi,
and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely
throughout northern India but is not an official language

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 52% male: 65.5% female: 37.7% (1995 est.)

Government India

Country name:  conventional long form: Republic of India conventional
short form: India

Government type:  federal republic

Capital:  New Delhi

Administrative divisions:  28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman
and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar,
Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*,
Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir,
Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra,
Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab,
Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh,
West Bengal

Independence:  15 August 1947 (from UK)

National holiday:  Republic Day, 26 January (1950)

Constitution:  26 January 1950

Legal system:  based on English common law; limited judicial review of
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Abdul KALAM (since 26
July 2002); Vice President (vacant) elections: president elected by
an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of
Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term;
election last held NA July 2002 (next to be held NA July 2007); vice
president elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term;
election last held 16 August 1997 (next to be held NA August 2002);
prime minister elected by parliamentary members of the majority party
following legislative elections; election last held NA October 1999
(next to be held NA October 2004) head of government: Prime Minister
Atal Bihari VAJPAYEE (since 19 March 1998) cabinet: Council of Ministers
appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
election results: Kocheril Raman NARAYANAN elected president; percent
of electoral college vote - NA%; Krishnan KANT elected vice president;
percent of Parliament vote - NA%; Atal Bihari VAJPAYEE elected prime
minister; percent of vote - NA%

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the
Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250
members, up to 12 of which are appointed by the president, the remainder
are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies;
members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha
(545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president;
members serve five-year terms) elections: People's Assembly - last held
5 September through 3 October 1999 (next to be held NA 2004) election
results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - BJP alliance
40.8%, Congress (I) alliance 33.8%, other 25.4%; seats by party - BJP
alliance 304, Congress (I) alliance 134, other 107

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president
and remain in office until they reach the age of 65)

Political parties and leaders:  All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
or AIADMK [C. Jayalalitha JAYARAM]; All India Forward Bloc or AIFB,
[D. BISWAS (general secretary)]; Asom Gana Parishad [Brindaban GOSWAMI];
Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP
[Jana KRISNAMURTHY]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist
Party of India or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of
India/Marxist-Leninist or CPI/ML [Dipankar BHATTACHARYA]; Congress
(I) Party [Sonia GANDHI]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK (a regional
party in Tamil Nadu) [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indian National League [Suliaman
SAITH]; Janata Dal (Secular) [H. D. Deve GOWDA]; Janata Dal (United)
or JDU [Sharad YADAV]; Kerala Congress (Mani faction) [K. M. MANI];
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKO]; Muslim League
[G. M. BANATWALA]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR];
Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Revolutionary Socialist
Party or RSP [Abani ROY]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV];
Shiromani Akali Dal [G. S. TOHRA]; Shiv Sena [Bal THACKERAY]; Tamil
Maanila Congress [G. K. VASAN]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu
NAIDU]; Trinamool Congress [Mamata BANERJEE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  numerous religious or
militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad,
Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups
seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All
Parties Hurriyat Conference

International organization participation:  AfDB, ARF (dialogue partner),
AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G- 6,
G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA
(observer), IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Lalit
MANSINGH consulate(s) general: Chicago,
 [1] (202) 483-3972 telephone:  DC 20008; note - Embassy located at 2536
 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Robert D. BLACKWILL (nominated March 2001)
 Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021 mailing address:  419-0017
 consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Kolkata (Calcutta),
Mumbai (Bombay)

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white,
and green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band;
similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in
the white band

Economy India

Economy - overview:  India's economy encompasses traditional village
farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern
industries, and a multitude of support services. About a quarter
of the population is too poor to be able to afford an adequate
diet. India's international payments position remained strong in 2001
with adequate foreign exchange reserves, and moderately depreciating
nominal exchange rates.  Growth in manufacturing output has slowed,
and electricity shortages continue in many regions. India has large
numbers of well-educated people skilled in English language; India is
a major exporter of software services and software workers.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $2.5 trillion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  5% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 25% industry: 26% services:
49% (2001)

Population below poverty line:  25% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 33.5% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  37.8 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force:  406 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 60%, services 23%, industry 17%

Unemployment rate:  4.4% (1999)

Budget:  revenues: $48.3 billion expenditures: $78.2 billion, including
capital expenditures of $13.5 billion (FY01/02 est.)

Industries:  textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation
equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software

Industrial production growth rate:  4.3% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  547.12 billion kWh (FY 2000-01, utilities only)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 83.4% hydro: 13.85%
other: 0.18% (2000) nuclear: 2.57%

Electricity - consumption:  509.89 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  321 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  1.385 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea,
sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish

Exports:  $44.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering
goods, chemicals, leather manufactures

Exports - partners:  US 22.8%, Hong Kong 5.8%, Japan 5.3%, UK 5.3%,
Germany 4.6% (2000)

Imports:  $53.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals

Imports - partners:  Benelux 8.5%, US 8%, UK 6.2%, Japan 5.7%, Saudi
Arabia 4.6% (2000)

Debt - external:  $100.3 billion (end-March 2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  $2.9 billion (FY98/99)

Currency:  Indian rupee (INR)

Currency code:  INR

Exchange rates:  Indian rupees per US dollar - 48.336 (January 2002),
47.186 (2001), 44.942 (2000), 43.055 (1999), 41.259 (1998), 36.313 (1997)

Fiscal year:  1 April - 31 March

Communications India

Telephones - main lines in use:  27.7 million (October 2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  2.93 million (November 2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: mediocre service; local and long
distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, with
services primarily concentrated in the urban areas; major objective is
to continue to expand and modernize long-distance network to keep pace
with rapidly growing number of local subscriber lines; steady improvement
is taking place with the recent admission of private and private-public
investors, but, with telephone density at about two for each 100 persons
and a waiting list of over 2 million, demand for main line telephone
service will not be satisfied for a very long time domestic: local
service is provided by microwave radio relay and coaxial cable, with
open wire and obsolete electromechanical and manual switchboard systems
still in use in rural areas; starting in the 1980s, a substantial amount
of digital switch gear has been introduced for local and long-distance
service; long-distance traffic is carried mostly by coaxial cable and
low-capacity microwave radio relay; since 1985 significant trunk capacity
has been added in the form of fiber-optic cable and a domestic satellite
system with 254 earth stations; mobile cellular service is provided
in four metropolitan cities international: satellite earth stations -
8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); nine
gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata
(Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gaidhinagar, Hyderabad,
and Ernakulam; 4 submarine cables - LOCOM linking Chennai (Madras) to
Penang; Indo-UAE-Gulf cable linking Mumbai (Bombay) to Al Fujayrah, UAE;
India-SEA-ME-WE-3, SEA-ME-WE-2 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai
(Bombay); Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with landing site at
Mumbai (Bombay) (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 153, FM 91, shortwave 68 (1998)

Radios:  116 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  562 (of which 82 stations have 1 kW or
greater power and 480 stations have less than 1 kW of power) (1997)

Televisions:  63 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .in

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  43 (2000)

Internet users:  5 million (2001)

Transportation India

Railways:  total: 63,693 km (13,771 km electrified) broad gauge: 45,103
km 1.676-m gauge narrow gauge: 15,178 km 1.000-m gauge; 3,105 km 0.762-m
gauge; 307 km 0.610-m gauge (2001)

Highways:  total: 3,319,644 km paved: 1,517,077 km unpaved: 1,802,567 km

Waterways:  16,180 km note: 3,631 km navigable by large vessels

Pipelines:  crude oil 3,005 km; petroleum products 2,687 km; natural
gas 1,700 km (1995)

Ports and harbors:  Chennai (Madras), Cochin, Jawaharal Nehru, Kandla,
Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Vishakhapatnam

Merchant marine:  total: 319 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,325,284
GRT/10,581,459 DWT ships by type: bulk 115, cargo 80, chemical tanker
16, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 3, container 13, liquefied
gas 9, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 74, short-sea passenger 2,
specialized tanker 1 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered
here as a flag of convenience: China 1, United Arab Emirates 10, United
Kingdom 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  335 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 234 over 3,047 m: 14 2,438 to
3,047 m: 48 914 to 1,523 m: 75 under 914 m: 17 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 80

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 101 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524
to 2,437 m: 7 under 914 m: 52 (2001) 914 to 1,523 m: 41

Heliports:  18 (2001)

Military India

Military branches:  Army, Navy (including naval air arm), Air Force,
Strategic Nuclear Command (SNC), Coast Guard, various security or
paramilitary forces (including Border Security Force, Assam Rifles,
Rashtriya Rifles, National Security Guards, Indo-Tibetan Border Police,
Special Frontier Force, Ladakh Scouts, Central Reserve Police Force,
Central Industrial Security Force, Railway Protection Force, Defense
Security Corps, and Indian Reserve Battalions)

Military manpower - military age:  17 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 285,729,565
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49:
167,599,380 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 10,879,384
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $12,079,700,000 (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.5% (FY01)

Transnational Issues India

Disputes - international:  discussions with Bangladesh remain stalled to
delimit a small section of river boundary, demarcate and fence off the
entire boundary, exchange 162 minuscule enclaves, and allocate divided
villages while skirmishes, illegal trafficking, and violence along the
border continue; Bangladesh has protested India's attempts to fence off
high traffic sections of the porous boundary; dispute with Bangladesh
over New Moore/South Talpatty Island in the Bay of Bengal; much of
the rugged, militarized boundary with China is in dispute but talks to
resolve the least contested middle sector resumed in 2001; with Pakistan,
armed stand-off over the status and sovereignty of Kashmir continues;
dispute with Pakistan over terminus of Rann of Kutch prevents extension
of a maritime boundary; water-sharing problems with Pakistan persist
over the Indus River (Wular Barrage); Joint Border Committee formed with
Nepal in 2001 is intended to resolve 53 disputed sections of boundary
covering an area of 720 sq km

Illicit drugs:  world's largest producer of licit opium for the
pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted
to illicit international drug markets; transit country for illicit
narcotics produced in neighboring countries; illicit producer of hashish
and methaqualone

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002




Education Resources

Natural Stone Veneer
Stone Directory

Las Vegas Graphics & Web Design
Las Vegas Graphic & Web Design
Graphic Design & Web Design in Las Vegas

Dentures. Complete Dentures. Partial Dentures.
 Complete Dentures
 Partial Dentures

Leadership Courses & Management Courses in Las Vegas USA
Management Training Courses in Las Vegas USA
Leadership Training & Management Courses in Las Vegas

Management  Best Practices
Management Best Practices

Management Consulting Courses
Management Consulting Courses

Management Training Courses
Management Training Courses

Business School Online
Online Business Schools

Open Courseware
Free Open Courses

Online Business Courses
Business Schools Online

Business Management Courses
Business Management Courses

CEO Magazine
CEO Magazine

CEO Library
CEO Library

CEO Club
Executive Networking

CEO Books
CEO Books

MBA Review
Review of MBA Programs

Best MBA
Ranking of World's Best MBA Programs

MBA distance Learning
Online MBA

Top Ranking MBA
Ranking of Top MBA Programs

Online Executive MBA
Online Executive MBA Programs

Accelerated MBA
Accelerated MBA Programs

Las Vegas Web Design
Las Vegas Web Design