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Flag of Hungary

Country Profile

Capital City: Budapest (est. pop. 2 million)

Other Cities: Debrecen (220,000); Miskolc (208,000); Szeged (189,000); Pecs (183,000).

Local Time: UTC +1h

Location: Central Europe, northwest of Romania.
Area: 93,030 sq. km. (35,910 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Mostly flat, with low mountains in the north and northeast and north of Lake Balaton.
Border countries: Austria, Croatia, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine

Climate: Temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers.

Type: Republic.
Constitution: August 20, 1949. Substantially rewritten in 1989, amended in 1990.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Hungarian(s).
Population (est.): 10.1 million.
Ethnic groups: Magyar 92%, Romany 4% (est.), German 2%, Slovak 1%, others 1%.
Religions: Roman Catholic 68%, Calvinist 21%, Lutheran 4%, Jewish 1%, others, including Baptist Adventist, Pentecostal, Unitarian 3%.
Languages: Magyar 98%, other 2%.
Literacy: 99%.


Currency: Forint (HUF)

Natural resources: Bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land.

Agriculture products: Wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products.

Industries: Mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles.

Exports partners:
Germany 34.1%, Austria 8%, Italy 5.8%, France 5.7%, UK 4.5%, Netherlands 4.1% (2003)

Imports partners: Germany 24.5%, Italy 7.1%, China 6.9%, Austria 6.3%, Russia 6.2%, France 4.8%, Japan 4.2% (2003)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Hungary

Hungarian Parliament

Miniszterelnöki Hivatal

Nemzeti Kulturális Örökség Minisztérium

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Hungary

Diplomatic Missions
Embassy of Hungary in the U.S.

Hungary's Diplomatic Missions Abroad

Foreign Diplomatic Missions in Hungary

Központi Statisztikai Hivatal

Map of Hungary



Background:  Hungary was part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire,
which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist
rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and announced withdrawal
from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by
Moscow. In the more open GORBACHEV years, Hungary led the movement to
dissolve the Warsaw Pact and steadily shifted toward multiparty democracy
and a market-oriented economy. Following the collapse of the USSR in 1991,
Hungary developed close political and economic ties to Western Europe. It
joined NATO in 1999 and is a frontrunner in a future expansion of the EU.

Geography Hungary

Location:  Central Europe, northwest of Romania

Geographic coordinates:  47 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 93,030 sq km water: 690 sq km land: 92,340 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:  total: 2,171 km border countries: Austria 366 km,
Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Yugoslavia 151 km, Slovakia 677 km,
Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain:  mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the
Slovakian border

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Tisza River 78 m highest point:
Kekes 1,014 m

Natural resources:  bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land

Land use:  arable land: 52% other: 45% (1998 est.)  permanent crops: 3%

Irrigated land:  2,100 sq km (1998 est.)

Environment - current issues:  the approximation of Hungary's standards in
waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution
with environmental requirements for EU accession will require large

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note:  landlocked; strategic location astride main land
routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between
Ukraine and Mediterranean basin

People Hungary

Population:  10,075,034 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 16.4% (male 847,081; female 802,340) 15-64
years: 68.8% (male 3,406,701; female 3,528,087) 65 years and over: 14.8%
(male 544,956; female 945,869) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  -0.3% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  9.34 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  13.09 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.58 male(s)/female total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  8.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   76.55 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.25 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.05% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  2,500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Hungarian(s) adjective: Hungarian

Ethnic groups:  Hungarian 89.9%, Roma 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak
0.8%, Romanian 0.7%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist
and other 7.5%

Languages:  Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 99% male: 99% female: 98% (1980 est.)

Government Hungary

Country name:   Republic of Hungary conventional short form: Government
type:  parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Budapest

Administrative divisions:  19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 20
urban counties* (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city** (fovaros);
Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba*, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen,
Budapest**, Csongrad, Debrecen*, Dunaujvaros*, Eger*, Fejer,
Gyor*, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely*,
Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar*, Kecskemet*, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc*,
Nagykanizsa*, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza*, Pecs*, Pest, Somogy, Sopron*,
Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged*, Szekesfehervar*, Szolnok*, Szombathely*,
Tatabanya*, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Veszprem*, Zala, Zalaegerszeg*

Independence:  1001 (unification by King Stephen I)

National holiday:  St. Stephen's Day, 20 August

Constitution:  18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April
1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and
constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also
established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment
streamlined the judicial system

Legal system:  rule of law based on Western model

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:   Ferenc MADL (since NA August 2000) head of government:
of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation
of the president elections: president elected by the National Assembly
for a five-year term; election last held 6 June 2000 (next to be held
by June 2005); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the
recommendation of the president note: to be elected, the president
must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a
simple majority in the third round election results: Ferenc MADL elected
president; percent of legislative vote - NA% (but by a simple majority
in the third round of voting); Peter MEDGYESSY elected prime minister;
percent of legislative vote - NA%

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules
(386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of
proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms) election
results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for
parliamentary representation in the first round) - FIDESZ/MDF 48.70%,
MSZP 46.11%, SZDSZ 4.92%, other 0.27%; seats by party - FIDESZ/MDF 188,
MSZP 178, SZDSZ 20 elections: Judicial branch:  Constitutional Court
(judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)

Political parties and leaders:  Alliance of Free Democrats or SZDSZ
[Gabor KUNCZE]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Gyorgy GICZY,
president]; Hungarian Civic Party or FIDESZ [Zoltan POKORNI]; Hungarian
Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Democratic People's
Party or MDNP [Erzsebet PUSZTAI, chairman]; Hungarian Justice and Life
Party or MIEP [Istvan CSURKA, chairman]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP
[Laszlo KOVACS, chairman]; Hungarian Workers' Party or MMP [Gyula THURMER,
chairman]; Independent Smallholders or FKGP [Jozsef TORGYAN, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ABEDA, Australia Group,
BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA,
WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Geza
JESZENSZKY chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Nancy Goodman BRINKER embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place,
Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270 telephone: [36] (1)
475-4336, 475-4156 FAX: [36] (1) 475-4520

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and green

Economy Hungary

Economy - overview:  Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic
growth and to work toward accession to the European Union. The
private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and
investment in Hungarian firms is widespread, with cumulative foreign
direct investment totaling more than $23 billion since 1989. Hungarian
sovereign debt was upgraded in 2000 to the second-highest rating among all
the Central European transition economies. Inflation and unemployment -
both priority concerns in 2001 - have declined substantially. Economic
reform measures such as health care reform, tax reform, and local
government financing have not yet been addressed by the ORBAN government.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $120.9 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3.9% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $12,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 6% industry: 34% services: 60%
(2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  8.6% (1993 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 20.5% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  25.3 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  9.2% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  4.2 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 65%, industry 27%, agriculture 8%

Unemployment rate:  6.5% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $13 billion expenditures: $14.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries:  mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods,
textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate:  4.7% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  33.436 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 58.83% hydro: 0.53%
other: 0.35% (2000) nuclear: 40.29%

Electricity - consumption:  35.095 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  1.2 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  5.2 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar
beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products

Exports:  $27.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  machinery and equipment 59.5%, other manufactures
29.4%, food products 6.9%, raw materials 2.4%, fuels and electricity 1.8%

Exports - partners:  Germany 37%, Austria 9%, Italy 6%, Netherlands 5%

Imports:  $29.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment 51.1%, other manufactures
35.9%, fuels and electricity 8.1%, food products 2.8%, raw materials 2.1%

Imports - partners:  Germany 25%, Russia 8%, Austria 7%, Italy 7% (2000)

Debt - external:  $28.5 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  $122.7 million (1995)

Currency:  forint (HUF)

Currency code:  HUF

Exchange rates:  forints per US dollar - 275.920 (January 2002), 286.490
(2001), 282.179 (2000), 237.146 (1999), 214.402 (1998), 186.789 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Hungary

Telephones - main lines in use:  3.095 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  1.269 million (July 1999)

Telephone system:  general assessment: the telephone system has been
modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication
service domestic:  by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio
relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated
in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones international:
Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries;
the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very
small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios:  7.01 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  35 (plus 161 low-power repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:  4.42 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .hu

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  16 (2000)

Internet users:  1.2 million (2001)

Transportation Hungary

Railways:  total: 7,869 km broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge narrow gauge:
219 km 0.760-m gauge standard gauge: 7,614 km 1.435-m gauge (2,423 km
electrified; 1,236 km double-tracked) note: Hungary and Austria jointly
manage the cross-border, standard-gauge railway connecting Gyor, Sopron,
and Ebenfurt (Gysev railroad) which has a route length of about 101 km
in Hungary and 65 km in Austria (2001)

Highways:  total: 188,203 km paved: 81,680 km (including 448 km of
expressways) unpaved: 106,523 km (1998 est.)

Waterways:  1,373 km (permanently navigable) (1997)

Pipelines:  crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)

Ports and harbors:  Budapest, Dunaujvaros

Airports:  43 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 16 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047
m: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 27 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524
to 2,437 m: 4 under 914 m: 8 (2001) 914 to 1,523 m: 12

Heliports:  5 (2001)

Military Hungary

Military branches:  Ground Forces, Air Forces

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,559,260 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 2,039,710
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 64,121
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $1.08 billion (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.75% (2002 est.)

Transnational Issues Hungary

Disputes - international:  Slovakia requested additional ICJ judgment in
1998 and talks continue to set modalities to assure Hungarian compliance
with 1997 ICJ decision to proceed with construction of Gabcikovo-Nagymaros
Dam, abandoned by Hungary in 1989; Hungary opposes Croatian plan to
build a hydropower dam on the boundary stream Drava

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe;
limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine
and methamphetamine

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

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