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Hong Kong
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Country Profile

Local Time: UTC +8h

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
Area: 1,100 sq. km.; Hong Kong comprises Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, the New Territories, and numerous small islands. Terrain: Hilly to mountainous, with steep slopes and natural harbor.

Climate: Tropical monsoon. Cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall.

Type: since 1 July 1997 a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China, with its own constitution (the Basic Law).

Population: (2001 Population Census - Hong Kong) 6,708,389
(6,8 - 7,3 million (mid-2002, various estimations)
Ethnic groups: Chinese 95%; other 5%.
Religions: eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10% .
Languages: Yue (Cantonese Chinese) and English are official.
Literacy: 92%


Currency: Hong Kong Dollar (HKD)

Natural resources: Outstanding deepwater harbor.

Agriculture products: Fresh vegetables, poultry, fish, pork.

Industries: Textiles, clothing, tourism, banking, shipping, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks.

Exports partners:
USA 30.7%, China 30.1%, UK 6.5%, Germany 4.0%, Taiwan 3.7, Singapore 2.5%, Japan 2.2% (2004) (Source: HK Trade and Industry Department)

Imports partners: China 43.5%, Japan 12.1%, Taiwan 7.3%, USA 5.3%, Singapore 5.3%, South Korea 4.8% (2004)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Hong Kong

Hong Kong SAR Government Information Centre

Hong Kong Economic and Trade Offices (HKETO)

Consular Posts and Officially Recognized Representatives

Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong

Hong Kong Observatory

Map of Hong Kong


Hong Kong

Background:  Occupied by the UK in 1841, Hong Kong was formally ceded
by China the following year; various adjacent lands were added later
in the 19th century.  Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and
the UK on 19 December 1984, Hong Kong became the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 1 July 1997. In this agreement,
China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula,
China's socialist economic system will not be imposed on Hong Kong and
that Hong Kong will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except
foreign and defense affairs for the next 50 years.

Geography Hong Kong

Location:  Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates:  22 15 N, 114 10 E

Map references:  Southeast Asia

Area:  total: 1,092 sq km water: 50 sq km land: 1,042 sq km

Area - comparative:  six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  total: 30 km border countries: China 30 km

Coastline:  733 km

Maritime claims:  territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate:  tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from
spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

Terrain:  hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: South China Sea 0 m highest point:
Tai Mo Shan 958 m

Natural resources:  outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar

Land use:  arable land: 5% other: 94% (1998 est.)  permanent crops: 1%

Irrigated land:  20 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  occasional typhoons

Environment - current issues:  air and water pollution from rapid

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Marine Dumping
(associate member), Ship Pollution (associate member)

Geography - note:  more than 200 islands

People Hong Kong

Population:  7,303,334 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 17.5% (male 679,311; female 599,811) 15-64
years: 71.6% (male 2,587,509; female 2,641,418) 65 years and over: 10.9%
(male 364,864; female 430,421) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.26% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  10.92 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  6.11 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  7.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.13
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.85 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  5.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   82.69 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.3 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.06% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  2,500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Chinese adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups:  Chinese 95%, other 5%

Religions:  eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%

Languages:  Chinese (Cantonese), English; both are official

Literacy:   age 15 and over has ever attended school total population:
Government Hong Kong

Country name:  conventional long form: Hong Kong Special Administrative
Region conventional short form: Hong Kong local short form: Xianggang
local long form: Xianggang Tebie Xingzhengqu abbreviation: HK

Dependency status:  special administrative region of China

Government type:  NA

Administrative divisions:  none (special administrative region of China)

Independence:  none (special administrative region of China)

National holiday:  National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the
People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 1 July 1997 is
celebrated as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Establishment Day

Constitution:  Basic Law approved in March 1990 by China's National
People's Congress is Hong Kong's "mini-constitution"

Legal system:  based on English common law

Suffrage:  direct election 18 years of age; universal for permanent
residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven
years; indirect election limited to about 100,000 members of functional
constituencies and an 800-member election committee drawn from broad
regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies

Executive branch:  chief of state: President of China JIANG Zemin (since
27 March 1993) head
 Chief Executive TUNG Chee-hwa (since 1 July 1997) cabinet:  members;
 ex-officio members are: Chief Secretary Donald TSANG Yam-kuen
(since 1 May 2001), Financial Secretary Antony LEUNG (since 1 May 2001),
and Secretary of Justice Elsie LEUNG (since 1 July 1997) elections: NA

Legislative branch:  unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (60
seats; 30 indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 24 elected
by popular vote, and 6 elected by an 800-member election committee;
members serve four-year terms) elections: last held 10 September 2000
(next to be held NA 2004) election results: percent of vote by party -
NA%; seats by party - Democratic Party 12, Democratic Alliance for the
Betterment of Hong Kong 10, Liberal Party 7, Frontier Party 5, Hong Kong
Progressive Alliance 4, New Century Forum 2, Hong Kong Association for
Democracy and People's Livelihood 1, independents 19

Judicial branch:  The Court of Final Appeal in the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region

Political parties and leaders:  Association for Democracy and People's
Livelihood [Frederick FUNG Kin-kee, chairman]; Citizens Party [Alex
CHAN Kai-chung]; Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong
[Jasper TSANG Yok-sing, chairman]; Democratic Party [Martin LEE Chu-ming,
chairman]; Frontier Party [Emily LAU Wai-hing, chairwoman]; Hong Kong
Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood [leader NA]; Hong Kong
Progressive Alliance [Ambrose LAU Hon-chuen]; Liberal Party [James TIEN
Pei-chun, chairman]; New Century Forum [NQ Ching-fai, chairman] note:
political blocs include: pro-democracy - Association for Democracy and
People's Livelihood, Citizens Party, Democratic Party, Frontier Party;
pro-Beijing - Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong,
Hong Kong Progressive Alliance, Liberal Party, New Century Forum

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Chinese General Chamber of
Commerce (pro-China); Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong;
Confederation of Trade Unions (pro-democracy) [LAU Chin-shek, president;
LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong Kong Industries;
Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China) [LEE Chark-tim, president];
Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement
in China [Szeto WAH, chairman]; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union
Council (pro-Taiwan); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong
Professional Teachers' Union [CHEUNG Man-kwong, president]; Liberal
Democratic Federation [HU Fa-kuang, chairman]

International organization participation:  APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, ESCAP
(associate), ICC, ICFTU, IHO, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau),
IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL, WMO, WToO (associate), WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none (special administrative region
of China)

Diplomatic representation from the US:   Consul General Michael KLOSSON
consulate(s) general:  96522-0002 telephone: [852] 2523-9011 FAX:
[852] 2845-1598

Flag description:  red with a stylized, white, five-petal bauhinia flower
in the center

Economy Hong Kong

Economy - overview:  Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy highly
dependent on international trade. Natural resources are limited, and
food and raw materials must be imported. Indeed, imports and exports,
including reexports, each exceed GDP in dollar value. Even before Hong
Kong reverted to Chinese administration on 1 July 1997 it had extensive
trade and investment ties with China. Per capita GDP compares with the
level in the four big economies of Western Europe. GDP growth averaged
a strong 5% in 1989-97. The widespread Asian economic difficulties
in 1998 hit this trade-dependent economy quite hard, with GDP down 5%.
The economy, with growth of 10% in 2000, recovered rapidly from the Asian
financial crisis. The recent global downturn has badly hurt Hong Kong's
exports and GDP growth is estimated to be 0% in 2001.  Private sector
analysts project 2002 GDP growth to be 1.8%.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $180 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  0% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $25,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 0.1% industry: 14.3% services:
85.6% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  -1.6% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  3.44 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  wholesale and retail trade, restaurants,
and hotels 31%, financing, insurance, and real estate 13%, community and
social services 11%, manufacturing 7%, transport and communications 6%,
construction 2%, other 30% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:  5.2% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $22.9 billion expenditures: $24.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of $465 million (FY00/01)

Industries:  textiles, clothing, tourism, banking, shipping, electronics,
plastics, toys, watches, clocks

Industrial production growth rate:  -9% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  29.449 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  35,401.57 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  1.181 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  9.195 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  fresh vegetables; poultry, fish, pork

Exports:  $191 billion (including reexports; f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  clothing, textiles, footwear, electrical
appliances, watches and clocks, toys, plastics, precious stones

Exports - partners:  China 34%, US 23%, Japan 6%, Germany 4%, UK 4%,
Taiwan 3%, Singapore 2% (2000)

Imports:  $203 billion (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials,
semimanufactures, petroleum, plastics, machinery, electrical equipment;
a large share is reexported

Imports - partners:  China 43%, Japan 12%, Taiwan 8%, US 7%, South Korea
5%, Singapore 3% (2000)

Debt - external:  $58.8 billion (2001 est.)

Currency:  Hong Kong dollar (HKD)

Currency code:  HKD

Exchange rates:  Hong Kong dollars per US dollar - 7.798 (January 2002),
7.7994 (2001), 7.7918 (2000), 7.7589 (1999), 7.7462 (1998), 7.7425
(1997); note - the Hong Kong dollar is linked to the US dollar at a rate
of about 7.8 Hong Kong dollars per US dollar

Fiscal year:  1 April - 31 March

Communications Hong Kong

Telephones - main lines in use:  3.839 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  3.7 million (December 1999)

Telephone system:  general assessment: modern facilities provide excellent
domestic and international services domestic: microwave radio relay
links and extensive fiber-optic network international: satellite earth
stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial
cable to Guangzhou, China; access to 5 international submarine cables
providing connections to ASEAN member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia,
Middle East, and Western Europe

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 7, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  4.45 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  4 (plus two repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:  1.84 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .hk

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  17 (2000)

Internet users:  3.93 million (2001)

Transportation Hong Kong

Railways:  total: 34 km standard gauge: 34 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified
and double-tracked) note: connects to China railway system at Hong
Kong-China border (2001)

Highways:  total: 1,831 km paved: 1,831 km unpaved: 0 km (1997)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Hong Kong

Merchant marine:  total: 433 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,539,257
GRT/22,682,757 DWT ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 264, cargo 38,
chemical tanker 10, combination bulk 2, container 73, liquefied gas 8,
multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 32, refrigerated
cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 2 note: includes some
foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 5,
Belize 1, British Virgin Islands 1, China 115, Denmark 2, Germany 19,
Greece 2, India 8, Japan 8, Liberia 1, Malaysia 7, Norway 1, Panama 2,
Philippines 5, Singapore 7, South Korea 2, Taiwan 1, United Kingdom 27,
Virgin Islands (UK) 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  3 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 3 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m:
1 (2001)

Heliports:  2 (2001)

Military Hong Kong

Military branches:  no regular indigenous military forces; Hong Kong
garrison of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) including elements
of the PLA Ground Forces, PLA Navy, and PLA Air Force; these forces are
under the direct leadership of the Central Military Commission in Beijing
and under administrative control of the adjacent Guangzhou Military Region

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,028,208 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,523,378
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 47,139
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  NA%

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of China

Transnational Issues Hong Kong

Disputes - international:  none

Illicit drugs:  strenuous law enforcement efforts, but faces serious
challenges in controlling transit of heroin and methamphetamine to
regional and world markets; money laundering center; rising indigenous
use of synthetic drugs, especially among young people

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

Hong Kong News in English:

Hong Kong Standard

South China Morning Post

Hong Kong News in Chinese
Apple Daily

Ming Pao

Singtao Times

Ta Kung Pao

RTHK on Internet - The Cyber Station

Arts & Culture
2005 Hong Kong Arts Festival

DiscoverHongKong - Culture and Heritage

Hong Kong Movie DataBase

Hong Kong Museum of Art

Hong Kong Museum of History

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Business & Economy

Hong Kong Monetary Authority

Trade and Industry Department

The Hong Kong Business Directory

Hong Kong Convention & Exhibition Centre

Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce

Hong Kong Trade Development Council

Hong Kong Economic and Trade Offices (HKETO)

Hong Kong Yellow Pages

Business News
The Standard


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Destination Hong Kong - Travel and Tour Guides
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Hong Kong Picture Archive

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University of Hong Kong

Department of Health

Policing Disease

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Hong Kong Transition
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Internet Resources

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