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The Gibraltar Home Page

The Gibraltar Tourist Board



Background:  Strategically important, Gibraltar was ceded to Great
Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was
formally declared a colony in 1830. In a 1967 referendum, Gibraltarians
ignored Spanish pressure and voted overwhelmingly to remain a British
dependency. Spain and the UK are discussing the issue of Gibraltar and
have set the goal of reaching an agreement by mid-2002.

Geography Gibraltar

Location:  Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar,
which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the
southern coast of Spain

Geographic coordinates:  36 8 N, 5 21 W

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 6.5 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 6.5 sq km

Area - comparative:  about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  total: 1.2 km border countries: Spain 1.2 km

Coastline:  12 km

Maritime claims:  territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate:  Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

Terrain:  a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m highest point:
Rock of Gibraltar 426 m

Natural resources:  NEGL

Land use:  arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  NA

Environment - current issues:  limited natural freshwater resources:
large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no
longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant

Geography - note:  strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links
the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

People Gibraltar

Population:  27,714 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 18.5% (male 2,633; female 2,509) 15-64 years:
66.3% (male 9,456; female 8,907) 65 years and over: 15.2% (male 1,803;
female 2,406) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.23% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  11.19 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  8.88 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  NEGL migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.75 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  5.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   82.25 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.65 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Gibraltarian(s) adjective: Gibraltar

Ethnic groups:  Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese

Religions:  Roman Catholic 76.9%, Church of England 6.9%, Muslim 6.9%,
Jewish 2.3%, none or other 7% (1991)

Languages:  English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish,
Italian, Portuguese, Russian

Literacy:  definition: NA total population: above 80% male: NA% female:

Government Gibraltar

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:

Dependency status:  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:  NA

Capital:  Gibraltar

Administrative divisions:  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:  National Day, 10 September (1964); note - day of
the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or go
with Spain

Constitution:  30 May 1969

Legal system:  English law

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal, plus other UK subjects who have
been residents six months or more

Executive branch:  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Governor and Commander-in-Chief David DURIE (since
5 April 2000); note - DURIE was appointed in February 2000 but took
office in April 2000 elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor
appointed by the monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor head of
government:  Ministers appointed from among the 15 elected members of the
House of Assembly by the governor in consultation with the chief minister

Legislative branch:  unicameral House of Assembly (18 seats - 15
elected by popular vote, one appointed for the Speaker, and two ex
officio members; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held
10 February 2000 (next to be held NA 2004) election results: percent of
vote by party - GSD 58%, GSLP 41%; seats by party - GSD 8, GSLP 7

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders:  Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Peter
CARUANA]; Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Joseph John BOSSANO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar
Representatives Organization; Women's Association

International organization participation:  Interpol (subbureau)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:  none (overseas territory of
the UK)

Flag description:  two horizontal bands of white (top, double width)
and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band;
hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band

Economy Gibraltar

Economy - overview:  Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade,
offshore banking, and its position as an international conference
center. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and
now contributes about 11% to the local economy. The financial sector
accounts for 20% of GDP; tourism (almost 6 million visitors in 1998),
shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate
revenue.  In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change
from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government
spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $500 million (1997 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  NA%

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $17,500 (1997 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  1.5% (1998)

Labor force:  14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers)

Labor force - by occupation:  services 60%, industry 40%, agriculture

Unemployment rate:  13.5% (1996)

Budget:  revenues: $307 million expenditures: $284 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)

Industries:  tourism, banking and finance, ship-building and repairing;
tobacco, mineral water, beer

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  97 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  90.21 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  none

Exports:  $81.1 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities:  (principally reexports) petroleum 51%,
manufactured goods 41%, other 8%

Exports - partners:  UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US,

Imports:  $492 million (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports - commodities:  fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs

Imports - partners:  UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands

Debt - external:  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:  $NA; note - if an agreement between Spain
and the UK is reached, could receive 50 million euros from the EU

Currency:  Gibraltar pound (GIP)

Currency code:  GIP

Exchange rates:  Gibraltar pounds per US dollar - 0.6981 (January 2002),
0.8977 (2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106
(1997); note - the Gibraltar pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year:  1 July - 30 June

Communications Gibraltar

Telephones - main lines in use:  19,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  1,620 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic
system and adequate international facilities domestic: automatic exchange
facilities international: radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite
earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  37,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (plus three low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:  10,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .gi

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (2000)

Internet users:  NA

Transportation Gibraltar

Railways:  total: NA km; 1.000-m gauge system in dockyard area only
(no longer used) (2001 est.)

Highways:  total: 46.25 km paved: 46.25 km unpaved: 0 km (2001)

Waterways:  none

Pipelines:  0 km

Ports and harbors:  Gibraltar

Merchant marine:  total: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 900,400
GRT/1,277,611 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here
as a flag of convenience: Belgium 1, Cyprus 1, France 2, Germany 55,
Greece 6, Ireland 1, Monaco 2, Norway 3, United Kingdom 13 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 35, chemical tanker 6, container 10,
multi-functional large-load carrier 3, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 14,
roll on/roll off 2

Airports:  1 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)

Military Gibraltar

Military branches:  no regular indigenous military forces; British Army,
Royal Navy, Royal Air Force

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Gibraltar

Disputes - international:  Spain and UK are discussing "total shared
sovereignty" to resolve 300-year dispute over Gibraltar, but resolution
is subject to a constitutional referendum by Gibraltarians, who have
largely expressed opposition to any form of cession to Spain

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002




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