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Georgia Flag

Country Profile

Capital City: T'bilisi (pop 1 253 000)

Other Cities: Batumi (Ajaria 137 100), Gori (70 000), Kutaisi (241 100), Rustavi (158 000), Sokhumi (Abkhazia)

Local Time: UTC +3h


Location: Southwestern Asia, South Caucasus, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia.
Area: 69.700 square kilometers. 20% of total territory is not under government control.
Terrain: Mostly rugged and mountainous.
Border countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia, Turkey

Climate: Generally moderate; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast with cold winters in the mountains.


Type: Republic.
Independence: 9 April, 1991, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia declared independence from the U.S.S.R.
Constitution: 17 October, 1995.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Georgian(s).
Population: 4.4 million (2002 census preliminary results. Does not include Abkhazia or South Ossetia.)
Ethnic groups: Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%. (1989 est.)
Religion: Main religion is Greek Orthodoxy (65%), other confessional groups include Shiite and Sunni Muslims (11%), Armenian Gregorians, Catholics, Baptists, Judaists.
Language: Georgian (official), Abkhaz also official language in Abkhazia.
Literacy: 99%.


Currency: Lari (GEL) put into circulation in 1995.

Natural resources: Forests, hydropower, nonferrous metals, manganese, iron ore, copper, citrus fruits, tea, wine.

Agriculture products:
Citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock.

Industries: Steel, aircraft, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese and copper), chemicals, wood products, wine.

Exports partners:
Russia 17.7%, Turkey 17.3%, Turkmenistan 12.2%, Armenia 8.6%, Switzerland 6.9%, Ukraine 6.3%, UK 5.9% (2003)

Imports partners: Russia 14%, UK 12.9%, Turkey 9.9%, Azerbaijan 8.3%, USA 8%, Germany 7.3%, Ukraine 7%, France 4.9% (2003)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Georgia

The Parliament of Georgia

Georgia General Assembly

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia

Diplomatic Missions
The Permanent Mission of Georgia to the United Nations

Embassy of Georgia to the U.S.

Embassies and Consulates of Georgia

Map of Georgia

Caucasus and Central Asia Map



Background:  Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th
century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian
revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR until the Soviet
Union dissolved in 1991. Ethnic separation in Abkhazia and South Ossetia,
poor governance, and Russian military bases deny the government effective
control over the entirety of the state's internationally recognized
territory. Despite myriad problems, progress on market reforms and
democratization support the country's goal of greater integration with
Western political, economic and security institutions.

Geography Georgia

Location:  Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey
and Russia

Geographic coordinates:  42 00 N, 43 30 E

Map references:  Asia

Area:  total: 69,700 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 69,700 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:  total: 1,461 km border countries: Armenia 164 km,
Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km

Coastline:  310 km

Maritime claims:  NA

Climate:  warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Terrain:  largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the
north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi
(Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River
Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills
of Kolkhida Lowland

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Mt'a
Mqinvartsveri 5,047 m

Natural resources:  forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore,
copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow
for important tea and citrus growth

Land use:  arable land: 11% permanent crops: 4% other: 85% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  4,700 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  earthquakes

Environment - current issues:  air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi;
heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies
of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia
controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them

People Georgia

Population:  4,960,951 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 19% (male 481,669; female 462,966) 15-64
years: 68.2% (male 1,631,351; female 1,752,230) 65 years and over: 12.8%
(male 246,663; female 386,072) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  -0.55% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  11.48 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  14.61 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -2.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.64 male(s)/female total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  51.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   68.32 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.48 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  less than 500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Georgian(s) adjective: Georgian

Ethnic groups:  Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%,
Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%

Religions:  Georgian Orthodox 65%, Muslim 11%, Russian Orthodox 10%,
Armenian Apostolic 8%, unknown 6%

Languages:  Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%,
other 7% note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 99% male: 100% female: 98% (1989 est.)

Government Georgia

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Georgia local short form: Sak'art'velo former: Georgian Soviet Socialist
Republic local long form: none

Government type:  republic

Capital:  T'bilisi

Administrative divisions:  9 regions, (mkharebi, singular - mkhare),
9 cities* (k'alak'ebi, singular - k'alak'i), and 2 autonomous
republics** (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika);
Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Sokhumi), Ajaria or
Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Bat'umi), Chiat'ura*, Gori*, Guria,
Imereti, Kakheti, K'ut'aisi*, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, P'ot'i*,
Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Rust'avi*, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti,
Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli, T'bilisi*, Tqibuli*, Tsqaltubo*,
Zugdidi* note: the administrative centers of the 2 autonomous republics
are shown in parentheses

Independence:  9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918
is the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 is the date
of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution:  adopted 17 October 1995

Legal system:  based on civil law system

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Eduard Amvrosiyevich
SHEVARDNADZE (previously elected chairman of the Government Council
10 March 1992; Council has since been disbanded; previously elected
chairman of Parliament 11 October 1992; president since 26 November 1995);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government:  of the Government Council 10 March 1992; Council
has since been disbanded; previously elected chairman of Parliament 11
October 1992; president since 26 November 1995); note - the president
is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet of
Ministers election results: Eduard SHEVARDNADZE reelected president;
percent of vote - Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 80% elections: president elected
by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 9 April 2000
(next to be held NA 2005)

Legislative branch:  unicameral Supreme Council (commonly referred to
as Parliament) or Umaghiesi Sabcho (235 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms) election results: percent of vote
by party - CUG 41.85%, AGUR 25.65%, IWSG 7.8%, all other parties received
less than 7% each; seats by party - CUG 130, AGUR 58, IWSG 15, Abkhaz
(government-in-exile) deputies 12, independents 17, other 3 elections:
last held 31 October and 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2003)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (judges elected by the Supreme Council
on the president's recommendation); Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders:  Citizen's Union of Georgia or CUG
[Zarab ZHVANIA]; Georgian People's Front [Nodar NATADZE]; Georgian
United Communist Party or UCPG [Panteleimon GIORGADZE]; Greens [Giorgi
GACHECHILADZE]; Industry Will Save Georgia or IWSG [Georgi TOPADZE];
Labor Party [Salva NATELASHVILI]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Irina
SARISHVILI-CHANTURIA]; New National Movement [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI]; New
Rightists [Levaii GACHECHILADZE]; Republican Party [David BERDZENISHVILI];
"Revival" Union Party or AGUR [Alsan ABASHIDZE]; Socialist Party or SPG
[Irakli MINDELI]; Traditionalists [Akaki ASATIANI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Georgian independent deputies from
Abkhazia (Abkhaz faction in Georgian Parliament); separatist elements in
the breakaway region of Abkhazia; supporters of the late ousted President
Zviad GAMSAKHURDYA remain a source of opposition

International organization participation:  BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS, EAPC,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Levan
MIKELADZE chancery: Suite 300, 1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20009 FAX: [1] (202) 393-6060 telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Richard MILES embassy: #25 Antoneli Street,
 use embassy street address telephone:
Flag description:  maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side
corner; rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white below

Economy Georgia

Economy - overview:  Georgia's main economic activities include
the cultivation of agricultural products such as citrus fruits, tea,
hazelnuts, and grapes; mining of manganese and copper; and output of a
small industrial sector producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages,
metals, machinery, and chemicals. The country imports the bulk of its
energy needs, including natural gas and oil products. Its only sizable
internal energy resource is hydropower. Despite the severe damage the
economy has suffered due to civil strife, Georgia, with the help of
the IMF and World Bank, has made substantial economic gains since 1995,
achieving positive GDP growth and curtailing inflation.  However, the
Georgian government suffers from limited resources due to a chronic
failure to collect tax revenues. Georgia also suffers from energy
shortages; it privatized the T'bilisi distribution network in 1998,
but collection rates are low, making the venture unprofitable. The
country is pinning its hopes for long-term recovery on its role as a
transit state for pipelines and trade.  The start of construction on
the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in summer 2002 will bring much-needed
investment and job opportunities to the country.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $15.5 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  8.4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $3,100 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 25% industry: 20% services:
55% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  54% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 27.9% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  37.1 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  4.6% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  2.1 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  industry 20%, agriculture 40%, services 40%
(1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:  17% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $499 million expenditures: $554 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  steel, aircraft, machine tools, electrical appliances,
mining (manganese), chemicals, wood products, wine

Industrial production growth rate:  3% (2000)

Electricity - production:  7.404 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 20.99% hydro: 79.01%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  7.886 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  200 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  1.2 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  citrus, grapes, tea, vegetables, potatoes;

Exports:  $450 million (2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  scrap metal, machinery, chemicals; fuel reexports;
citrus fruits, tea, wine, other agricultural products

Exports - partners:  Turkey 22.3%, Russia 20.6%, Germany 10.4%, Azerbaijan
6.3%, Armenia 4%, US 2.2% (2000)

Imports:  $723 million (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  fuels, machinery and parts, transport equipment,
grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners:  EU 23.8%, Turkey 16%, Russia 12.8%, US 10.1%,
Germany 7.9% (2000)

Debt - external:  $1.7 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  $212.7 million (1995)

Currency:  lari (GEL)

Currency code:  GEL

Exchange rates:  lari per US dollar - 2.1888 (January 2002), 2.0730
(2001), 1.9762 (2000), 2.0245 (1999), 1.3898 (1998), 1.2975 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Georgia

Telephones - main lines in use:  620,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  185,500 (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: local - T'bilisi
and K'ut'aisi have cellular telephone networks; urban telephone density
is about 20 per 100 people; rural telephone density is about 4 per 100
people; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi
and K'ut'aisi; nationwide pager service is available international:
Georgia and Russia are working on a fiber-optic line between P'ot'i and
Sochi (Russia); present international service is available by microwave,
landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international
electronic mail and telex service are available

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 7, FM 12, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios:  3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  12 (plus repeaters) (1998)

Televisions:  2.57 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .ge

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  6 (2000)

Internet users:  20,000 (2000)

Transportation Georgia

Railways:  total: 1,583 km in common carrier service; does not include
industrial lines broad gauge: 1,546 km 1.520-m gauge narrow gauge:
37 km 0.912-m gauge (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 33,900 km paved: 29,500 km (includes some all-weather
gravel-surfaced roads) unpaved: 4,400 km (these roads are made of
unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Waterways:  none

Pipelines:  crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas 440 km

Ports and harbors:  Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi

Merchant marine:  total: 64 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 210,620
GRT/288,565 DWT ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 46, container 5, petroleum
tanker 7, roll on/roll off 1 note: includes some foreign-owned ships
registered here as a flag of convenience: Belize 1, Bulgaria 1, Cyprus 1,
Ecuador 1, Egypt 4, Gibraltar 1, Greece 5, Jordan 1, Latvia 1, Liberia 1,
Malta 1, Panama 9, Romania 8, Russia 4, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Saudi Arabia 2, Syria 5, Turkey 2, Ukraine
7, United Arab Emirates 11, United Kingdom 1, United States 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  31 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 16 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047
m: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 3 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 15 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524
to 2,437 m: 4 under 914 m: 6 (2001) 914 to 1,523 m: 4

Transportation - note:  transportation network is in poor condition
resulting from ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages;
network lacks maintenance and repair

Military Georgia

Military branches:  Ground Forces (includes National Guard), combined
Air and Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, Republic Security and Police
Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,300,259 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,027,407
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 41,561
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $23 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  0.59% (FY00)

Military - note:  a CIS peacekeeping force of Russian troops is deployed
in the Abkhazia region of Georgia together with a UN military observer
group; a Russian peacekeeping battalion is deployed in South Ossetia

Transnational Issues Georgia

Disputes - international:  Chechen and other insurgents transit Pankisi
Gorge to infiltrate Akhmeti region; boundary with Russia has been largely
delimited, but not demarcated; several small, strategic segments remain
in dispute

Illicit drugs:  limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly
for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via
Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

The Georgian Times

Prime News Agency

Sarke Information Agency

Internews Georgia

Arts & Culture

Georgian Culture

National Treasury of Georgia

League of Professionals

Old Tbilisi 2000

Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theatre

Business & Economy
National Bank of Georgia

Georgian Stock Exchange

GEPA - Georgian Export Promotion Agency

Country Guides

General Information about Georgia

About Georgia

Georgian Technical University

Tbilisi State University

Georgian Fonts

Fonts in Cyberspace - Georgia

History of Georgia

History of the Abkhazia Conflict
Abkhazia Conflict

Information Concerning the Conflict in Abkhazia

The Republic of Abkhazia

Georgians and Abkhazians - the Search for a Peace Settlement-Contents

Georgia Net

GeREs - Georgian Resources

Newsgroup of Georgia




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