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Egypt Flag

Country Profile

Capital City: Cairo (al-Qa hirah) (pop. estimated 16 million)

Other Cities: Alexandria (6 million), Aswan, Asyut, Port Said, Suez, Ismailia

Local Time: UTC +2h

Location:Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip
Area: 1 001 450 sq. km (386 000 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Desert, except Nile valley and delta.
Border countries: Palestine (Gaza Strip), Israel, Libya, Sudan

Climate: Dry, hot summers; moderate winters

Type: Republic
Independence: 1922 (from the UK)
Constitution: 1971

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Egyptian(s)
Population (2000): 68 million
Ethnic groups: Egyptian, Bedouin Arab, Nubian
Religions: Sunni Muslim 90%, Coptic Christian
Languages: Arabic (official), English, French
Literacy--total adult: 55.2%, male: 66.6%, female: 43.6% (1999-2000 est.). \


Currency: Egyptian Pound (EGP)

Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc.

Agriculture products: Cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats.

Industries: Textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals.

Exports partners:
USA 13.3%, Italy 12.3%, UK 7.9%, France 4.7%, Germany 4.7%, India 4.2% (2003)

Imports partners: USA 13.6%, Germany 7.4%, Italy 7%, France 6.6%, China 4.8%, Saudi Arabia 4.3% (2003)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Egypt

The Egyptian Presidency

Egypt's People Assembly

Egyptian Shoura Assembly

Egypt State Information Service

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Diplomatic Missions
Egyptian Embassy in Berlin (Germany)

Embassy of Egypt

Egyptian Missions Abroad

Foreign Diplomatic Missions in Egypt


Egyptian Meteorological Authority (EMA)

Map of Egypt

Map of the Middle East region

Map of North Africa and the Middle East



Background:  Nominally independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired
full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of the Aswan High
Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored
place of the Nile river in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A
rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable
land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and
stress society. The government has struggled to ready the economy for
the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in
communications and physical infrastructure.

Geography Egypt

Location:  Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates:  27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 1,001,450 sq km land: 995,450 sq km water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries:  total: 2,665 km border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km,
Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline:  2,450 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive
economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain:  vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m highest
point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use:  arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% other: 97% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  33,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods,
landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring;
dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues:  agricultural land being lost to
urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan
High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches,
and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides,
raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water
resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source;
rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Geography - note:  controls
Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern
Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean
and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish
its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream
neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees

People Egypt

Population:  70,712,345 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:   33.96% (male 12,292,185; female 11,721,469) 15-64 years:
(male 1,191,091; female 1,541,459) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.66% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  24.41 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.58 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.77 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  58.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   66.24 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.99 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Egyptian(s) adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups:  Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers)
99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and
French) 1%

Religions:  Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6%

Languages:  Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by
educated classes

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 51.4% male: 63.6% female: 38.8% (1995 est.)

Government Egypt

Country name:   Arab Republic of Egypt conventional short form:  local
long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Cairo

Administrative divisions:  26 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum,
Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah,
Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah,
As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina',
Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj

Independence:  28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday:  Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)

Constitution:  11 September 1971

Legal system:  based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic
codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees
validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since
14 October 1981) head of government: Prime Minister Atef Mohammed ABEID
(since 5
 Cabinet appointed by the president elections:  nomination must then be
 validated by a national, popular referendum;
national referendum last held 26 September 1999 (next to be held
NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president election
results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's nomination
by the People's Assembly to a fourth term

Legislative branch:  bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or
Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by
the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council
or Majlis al-Shura - which functions only in a consultative role (264
seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members
serve NA-year terms) elections: People's Assembly - three-phase voting -
last held 19 October, 29 October, 8 November 2000 (next to be held NA
November 2005); Advisory Council - last held 7 June 1995 (next to be
held NA) election results:  opposition 4%; seats by party - NDP 398,
NWP 7, Tagammu 6, Nasserists 2, LSP 1, independents 38, undecided 2;
Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NDP 99%, independents 1%;
seats by party - NA

Judicial branch:  Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders:  Nasserist Arab Democratic Party
or Nasserists [Dia' al-din DAWUD]; National Democratic Party or NDP
[President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK] - governing party; National Progressive
Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Khalid MUHI AL-DIN]; New Wafd Party or
NWP [No'man GOMA]; Socialist Liberal Party or LSP [leader NA] note:
formation of political parties must be approved by the government

Political pressure groups and leaders:  despite a constitutional
ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim
Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant
political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by
the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but moved more aggressively
since then to block its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned,
but constrained in practical terms; trade unions and professional
associations are officially sanctioned

International organization participation:  ABEDA, ACC, ACCT, AfDB,
G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
M. Nabil FAHMY chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco FAX:
[1] (202) 244-4319 telephone: [1] (202) 895-5440

Diplomatic representation from the US:   Ambassador C. David WELCH
(since 3 Aug. 2001) embassy:  APO AE 09839-4900 telephone: [20] (2)
797-3300 FAX: [20] (2) 797-3200

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and
black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle
facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in
Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which
has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria, which has two
green stars, and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus
an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band

Economy Egypt

Economy - overview:  Egypt improved its macroeconomic performance
throughout most of the last decade by following IMF advice on fiscal,
monetary, and structural reform policies. As a result, Cairo managed
to tame inflation, slash budget deficits, and attract more foreign
investment. In the past three years, however, the pace of reform has
slackened, and excessive spending on national infrastructure projects
has widened budget deficits again. Lower foreign exchange earnings since
1998 resulted in pressure on the Egyptian pound and periodic dollar
shortages. Monetary pressures have increased since 11 September 2001
because of declines in tourism, Suez canal tolls, and exports, and Cairo
has devalued the pound several times in the past year.  The development
of a gas export market is a major bright spot for future growth prospects.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $258 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  2.5% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 14% industry: 30% services:
56% (2001)

Population below poverty line:  22.9% (FY95/96 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 4.4%
highest 10%: 25% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  28.9 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2.3% (2001)

Labor force:  20.6 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 29%, industry 22%, services 49%
(2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:  12% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $21.5 billion expenditures: $26.2 billion, including
capital expenditures of $5.9 billion (2001)

Industries:  textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, hydrocarbons,
construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate:  1.8% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  69.592 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 77.1% hydro: 22.9%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  64.721 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits,
vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats

Exports:  $7.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  crude oil and petroleum products, cotton,
textiles, metal products, chemicals

Exports - partners:  EU 43% (Italy 18%, Germany 4%, UK 3.2%), US 15%,
Middle East 11%, Asian countries 9%, (2000)

Imports:  $164 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals,
wood products, fuels

Imports - partners:  EU 36% (Germany 8%, Italy 8%, France 6%), US 18%,
Asian countries 13%, , Middle East 6% (2000)

Debt - external:  $29 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  ODA, $2.25 billion (1999)

Currency:  Egyptian pound (EGP)

Currency code:  EGP

Exchange rates:  Egyptian pounds per US dollar - market rate - 4.5000
(January 2002), 4.4900 (2001), 3.6900 (2000), 3.4050 (1999), 3.3880
(1998), 3.3880 (1997)

Fiscal year:  1 July - 30 June

Communications Egypt

Telephones - main lines in use:  3,971,500 (December 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  380,000 (1999)

Telephone system:  general assessment: large system; underwent extensive
upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Internet access and
cellular service are available domestic: principal centers at Alexandria,
Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial
cable and microwave radio relay international: satellite earth stations -
2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat;
5 coaxial submarine cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave
radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel and a signatory to
Project Oxygen (a global submarine fiber-optic cable system)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave 3

Radios:  20.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  98 (September 1995)

Televisions:  7.7 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .eg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  50 (2000)

Internet users:  560,000 (2001)

Transportation Egypt

Railways:  total: 4,955 km standard gauge: 4,955 km 1,435-m gauge (42
km electrified; 1,560 km double-track) (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 64,000 km paved: 50,000 km unpaved: 14,000 km (1996)

Waterways:  3,500 km note: including the Nile, Lake Nasser,
Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta;
Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels
drawing up to 16.1 m of water

Pipelines:  crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas
460 km

Ports and harbors:  Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur Safajah,
Damietta, Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

Merchant marine:  total: 175 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,331,186
GRT/1,987,964 DWT ships by type: bulk 23, cargo 58, container 2, liquefied
gas 1, passenger 61, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 13, short-sea
passenger 3 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here
as a flag of convenience:, Denmark 1, Germany 1, Greece 6, Lebanon 3,
Monaco 1, Ukraine 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  92 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 72 over 3,047 m: 13 2,438 to
3,047 m: 37 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 3 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 20 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524
to 2,437 m: 2 under 914 m: 10 (2001) 914 to 1,523 m: 7

Heliports:  2 (2001)

Military Egypt

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Military manpower - military age:  20 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 19,030,030 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 12,320,902
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 712,983
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $4.04 billion (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  4.1% (FY99/00)

Transnational Issues Egypt

Disputes - international:  Egypt and Sudan each claim to administer
triangular areas which extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary
along the 22nd Parallel (in the north, the "Hala'ib Triangle", is the
largest with 20,580 sq km); in 2001, the two states agreed to discuss an
"area of integration" and withdraw military forces in the overlapping

Illicit drugs:  transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian
heroin and opium moving to Europe, Africa, and the US; transit stop for
Nigerian couriers

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Al Ahram Daily

Al Ahram Weekly


Cairo Press Review

The Egyptian Gazette

Egypt Today

Middle East Time

El Tahrir

la revue d'Egypte

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Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Egyptian Museum

Museums in Egypt

Business & Economy
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Egyptian Stocks

Egyptian Exporters Association


The Egypt Airline.

Egyptian Tourist Authority

Tour Egypt

Ain Shams University

Al-Azhar University

Cairo University

Egyptian Universities Network


additional sites:
A Brief Review of Modern Egyptian History

Egypt History

Ancient Egypt
The Archeological Map of Egypt

Abzu Regional Index: Egypt

Ancient Egypt

The Ancient Egypt Site

Centre for Computer-aided Egyptological Research (CCER)

Eternal Egypt

Guardian's Egypt

International Association of Egyptologists


The Pharaonic Village

Egypt WWW Index


Egypt Web Search


Newsgroup of Egypt




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