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Czech Republic
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Czech Republic

Background:  After World War II, Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet
sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended
the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize party rule and create
"socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following
year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of
Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a
peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a
"velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic
and Slovakia. Now a member of NATO, the Czech Republic has moved toward
integration in world markets, a development that poses both opportunities
and risks.

Geography Czech Republic

Location:  Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates:  49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 78,866 sq km water: 1,590 sq km land: 77,276 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:  total: 1,881 km border countries: Austria 362 km,
Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 215 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain:  Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and
plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of
very hilly country

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Elbe River 115 m highest point:
Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources:  hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber

Land use:  arable land: 40% permanent crops: 3% other: 57% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  240 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  flooding

Environment - current issues:  air and water pollution in areas of
northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health
risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic
Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent
Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography - note:  landlocked; strategically located astride some of
oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a
traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the
Danube in central Europe

People Czech Republic

Population:  10,256,760 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 15.7% (male 828,273; female 786,617) 15-64
years: 70.3% (male 3,605,766; female 3,603,058) 65 years and over: 14%
(male 551,852; female 881,194) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  -0.07% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  9.08 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  10.76 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.63
male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  5.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   78.65 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.18 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.04% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  2,200 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Czech(s) adjective: Czech

Ethnic groups:  Czech 81.2%, Moravian 13.2%, Slovak 3.1%, Polish 0.6%,
German 0.5%, Silesian 0.4%, Roma 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 0.5% (1991)

Religions:  atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%,
Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%

Languages:  Czech

Literacy:  definition: NA total population: 99.9% (1999 est.)  male:
NA% female: NA%

Government Czech Republic

Country name:   Czech Republic conventional short form:  Ceska Republika

Government type:  parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Prague

Administrative divisions:  13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and
1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky Kraj, Jihomoravsky Kraj,
Karlovarsky Kraj, Kralovehradecky Kraj, Liberecky Kraj, Moravskoslezsky
Kraj, Olomoucky Kraj, Pardubicky Kraj, Plzensky Kraj, Praha*, Stredocesky
Kraj, Ustecky Kraj, Vysocina, Zlinsky Kraj

Independence:  1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech
Republic and Slovakia)

National holiday:  Czech Founding Day, 28 October (1918)

Constitution:  ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system:  civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it
in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 2
February 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Milos ZEMAN (since 17
July 1998); Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir SPIDLA (since 22 July 1998),
Pavel RYCHETSKY (since 22 July 1998), Jan KAVAN (since 8 December 1999)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of
the prime minister elections:  held 20 January 1998 (next to be held
NA January 2003); prime minister appointed by the president election
results: Vaclav HAVEL reelected president; Vaclav HAVEL received 47 of
81 votes in the Senate and 99 out of 200 votes in the Chamber of Deputies
(second round of voting)

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of
the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber
of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate - last held
12 and 19 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2002); Chamber of
Deputies - last held 19-20 June 1998 (next to be held by NA June 2002)
election results:  22, CSSD 15, ODA 7, US 4, KSCM 3, independents 2;
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CSSD 32.3%, ODS 27.7%,
KSCM 11%, KDU-CSL 9.0%, US 8.6%; seats by party - CSSD 74, ODS 63,
KSCM 24, KDU-CSL 20, US 18, CSNS 1

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and
deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term

Political parties and leaders:  Christian and Democratic
Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Cyril SVOBODA, chairman];
Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Michael ZANTOVSKY, chairman]; Civic
Democratic Party or ODS [Vaclav KLAUS, chairman]; Communist Party of
Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman]; Communist
Party of Czechoslovakia or KSC [Miroslav STEPAN, chairman]; Czech National
Social Party of CSNS [Jan SULA, chairman]; Czech Social Democratic Party
or CSSD [Milos ZEMAN, chairman]; Democratic Union or DEU [Ratibor MAJZLIK,
chairman]; Freedom Union or US [Hana MARVANOVA, chairman]; Quad Coalition
[Karel KUHNL, chairman] (includes KDU-CSL, US, ODA, DEU); Republicans
of Miroslav SLADEK or RMS [Miroslav SLADEK, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Czech-Moravian Confederation of
Trade Unions [Richard FALBR]

International organization participation:  ACCT (observer), Australia
Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer),

Diplomatic representation in the US:   Ambassador Martin PALOUS
consulate(s) general:  363-6315 chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street
NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Craig R. STAPLETON embassy: Trziste 15,
 use embassy street address telephone:
Flag description:  two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red
with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (identical to
the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

Economy Czech Republic

Economy - overview:  Basically one of the most stable and prosperous of
the post-Communist states, the Czech Republic has been recovering from
recession since mid-1999. Growth in 2000-01 was led by exports to the
EU, especially Germany, and foreign investment, while domestic demand is
reviving.  Uncomfortably high fiscal and current account deficits could
be future problems. Unemployment is gradually declining as job creation
continues in the rebounding economy; inflation is up to 4.7% but still
moderate. The EU put the Czech Republic just behind Poland and Hungary in
preparations for accession, which will give further impetus and direction
to structural reform. Moves to complete banking, telecommunications, and
energy privatization will add to foreign investment, while intensified
restructuring among large enterprises and banks and improvements in the
financial sector should strengthen output growth.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $147.9 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3.4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $14,400 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 5% industry: 41% services: 54%

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 4.3%
highest 10%: 22.4% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  26 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  4.7% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  5.203 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 5%, industry 40%, services 55%
(2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:  8.5% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $16.7 billion expenditures: $18 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  metallurgy, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, glass,

Industrial production growth rate:  7.2% (2001)

Electricity - production:  69.589 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 77.75% hydro: 2.5%
other: 1.2% (2000) nuclear: 18.55%

Electricity - consumption:  54.701 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  18.74 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  8.725 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit;
pigs, poultry

Exports:  $32.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities:  machinery and transport equipment 44%,
intermediate manufactures 25%, chemicals 7%, raw materials and fuel 7%

Exports - partners:  Germany 40.4%, Slovakia 7.7%, Austria 6.0%, Poland
5.4%, UK 4.3% (2000)

Imports:  $37.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and transport equipment 40%,
intermediate manufactures 21%, raw materials and fuels 13%, chemicals 11%

Imports - partners:  Germany 26.7%, Russia 6.4%, Slovakia 6.0%, Italy
5.2%, Austria 4.9% (2000)

Debt - external:  $24.6 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  $NA

Currency:  Czech koruna (CZK)

Currency code:  CZK

Exchange rates:  koruny per US dollar - 36.325 (January 2002), 38.035
(2001), 38.598 (2000), 34.569 (1999), 32.281 (1998), 31.698 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Czech Republic

Telephones - main lines in use:  3.869 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  4.346 million (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: privatization and modernization
of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing
steadily; growth in the use of mobile cellular telephones is particularly
vigorous domestic: 86% of exchanges now digital; existing copper
subscriber systems now being enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber
Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals;
trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay
international:  regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 31, FM 304, shortwave 17 (2000)

Radios:  3,159,134 (December 2000)

Television broadcast stations:  150 (plus 1,434 repeaters) (2000)

Televisions:  3,405,834 (December 2000)

Internet country code:  .cz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  more than 300 (2000)

Internet users:  1.1 million (2001)

Transportation Czech Republic

Railways:  total: 9,444 km standard gauge: 9,350 km 1.435-m gauge (2,843
km electrified; 1,929 km double-track) narrow gauge: 94 km 0.760-m gauge
(2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 55,432 km paved: 55,432 km (including 499 km of
expressways) unpaved: 0 km (2000)

Waterways:  303 km note: (the Labe (Elbe) is the principal river) (2000)

Pipelines:  natural gas 3,550 km (2000)

Ports and harbors:  Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem

Airports:  121 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 44 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047
m: 10 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 17 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 77 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to
1,523 m: 28 under 914 m: 48 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Czech Republic

Military branches:  Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Territorial
Defense Force

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,637,128 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 2,012,779
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 69,393
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $1,190,200,000 (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.1% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Czech Republic

Disputes - international:  Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution
for 1,600 sq km of land in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1918;
individual Sudeten German claims for restitution of property confiscated
in connection with their expulsion after World War II; Austria has minor
dispute with Czech Republic over the Temelin nuclear power plant and
post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities

Illicit drugs:  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor
transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of
synthetic drugs for local and regional markets

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002




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