World Online Education - World Portal : International Online Education Portal
Worldwide Online Education
International Online Education Portal
Learn About the World's Online Business, Education, Economy, Politics, Culture, Religion, Media and More









Online Business Education. Economy. Politics. Culture. Religion. Media

Flag of Cyprus

Country Profile

Capital City: Nicosia (Lefkosia) (pop. 197 800)

Other Cities: Larnaca, Limassol (Lemesos) Famagusta, Paphos, Kyrenia, Morphou.

Local Time: UTC +2h
Summer Time (DST) UTC +3

Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey.
Area: 9 251 sq. km. (3 572 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Central plain with mountain ranges to the north and south.

Climate: Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters.

Type: Republic.
Independence: 16 August 1960 (from the UK).
Constitution: 16 August 1960.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Cypriot(s).
Population (2001 census): 793 100.
Ethnic groups: Greek (77%), Turkish (18%), Armenian and other (4%).
Religions: Greek Orthodox, Muslim, Maronite, Roman Catholic, Armenian Orthodox.
Languages: Greek, Turkish, English.
Literacy: about 99%.


Currency: Greek Cypriot area: Cypriot Pound (CYP); Turkish Cypriot area: Turkish Lira (TRL)

Natural resources: Copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment.

Agriculture products: Potatoes, citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables, poultry, pork, lamb, kids, dairy.

Industries: Food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood products.

Exports partners:
UK 32.1%, Greece 9.2%, Lebanon 3.5% (2003)

Imports partners: Greece 11.9%, Italy 9.8%, UK 8.3%, Germany 7.5%, Japan 5.6%, France 5.1%, China 4.9%, USA 4.2%, Spain 4% (2003)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Cyprus

Republic of Cyprus (The Greek Cypriots)

Republic of Cyprus

House of Representatives

Press and Information Office

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of Cyprus to the United Nations

Embassy of Cyprus

Turkish Republic Of Northern Cyprus
Turkish Republic Of Northern Cyprus President's Office

Statistical Service of Cyprus

Map of Cyprus



Background:  Independence from the UK was approved in 1960 with
constitutional guarantees by the Greek Cypriot majority to the Turkish
Cypriot minority. In 1974, a Greek-sponsored attempt to seize the
government was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon
controlled almost 40% of the island. In 1983, the Turkish-held area
declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus", but it is
recognized only by Turkey.  UN-led talks on the status of Cyprus resumed
in December 1999 to prepare the ground for meaningful negotiations
leading to a comprehensive settlement.

Geography Cyprus

Location:  Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey

Geographic coordinates:  35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references:  Middle East

Area:  total: 9,250 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish
Cypriot area) water: 10 sq km land: 9,240 sq km

Area - comparative:  about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries:  0 km

Coastline:  648 km

Maritime claims:  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of
exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Terrain:  central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered
but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m highest point:
Olympus 1,951 m

Natural resources:  copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt,
marble, clay earth pigment

Land use:  arable land: 10% permanent crops: 5% other: 85% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  400 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  moderate earthquake activity; droughts

Environment - current issues:  water resource problems (no natural
reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion
to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water
pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss
of wildlife habitats from urbanization

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: Geography - note:
the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and

People Cyprus

Population:  767,314 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 22.4% (male 87,981; female 84,168) 15-64
years: 66.6% (male 258,414; female 252,778) 65 years and over: 11%
(male 36,607; female 47,366) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.57% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  12.91 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  7.63 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.77 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  7.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   79.5 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.9 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.1% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  400 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Cypriot(s) adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups:  Greek 85.2%, Turkish 11.6%, other 3.2% (2000)

Religions:  Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian Apostolic,
and other 4%

Languages:  Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 97% male: 98.7% female: 95% (1999)

Government Cyprus

Country name:   Republic of Cyprus conventional short form:  Republic
of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)

Government type:  republic note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic
communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal
strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified after the Turkish
intervention in July 1974 after a Greek junta-based coup attempt gave the
Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the
only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish
Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation
of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), recognized only by
Turkey; both sides publicly support a settlement based on a federation
(Greek Cypriot position) or confederation (Turkish Cypriot position)

Capital:  Nicosia

Administrative divisions:  6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca,
Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish Cypriot area's administrative
divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small
parts of Lefkosa (Nicosia) and Larnaca

Independence:  16 August 1960 (from UK); note - Turkish Cypriot area
proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975

National holiday:  Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish
Cypriot area celebrates 15 November (1983) as Independence Day

Constitution:  16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a
new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations
between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975
Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies
within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which was renamed the
"Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new constitution for
the Turkish Cypriot area passed by referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system:  based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since
28 February 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant;
under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government;
post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution,
the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot cabinet: Council of Ministers
appointed jointly by the president and vice president elections: president
elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15
February 1998 (next to be held NA February 2003) note: Rauf R. DENKTASH
has been "president" of the Turkish Cypriot area since 13 February 1975
("president" elected by popular vote for a five-year term); elections
last held 15 April 2000 (next to be held NA April 2005); results -
Rauf R. DENKTASH reelected president after the other contender withdrew;
Dervis EROGLU has been "prime minister" of the Turkish Cypriot area since
16 August 1996; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish
Cypriot area election results: Glafcos CLERIDES reelected president;
percent of vote - Glafcos CLERIDES 50.8%, George IAKOVOU 49.2%

Legislative branch:  unicameral - Greek Cypriot area: House of
Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to the
Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots; note - only those assigned
to Greek Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to
serve five-year terms); Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of the Republic
or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote
to serve five-year terms) election results: Greek Cypriot area: House
of Representatives - percent of vote by party - AKEL 34.71%, DISY 34%,
DIKO 14.84%, KISOS 6.51%, others 9.94%; seats by party - AKEL (Communist)
20, DISY 19, DIKO 9, KISOS 4, others 4; Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of
the Republic - percent of vote by party - UBP 40.3%, DP 22.6%, TKP 15.4%,
CTP 13.4%, UDP 4.6%, YBH 2.5%, BP 1.2%; seats by party - UBP 24, DP 13,
TKP 7, CTP 6 elections: Greek Cypriot area: last held 27 May 2001 (next
to be held NA May 2006); Turkish Cypriot area: last held 6 December 1998
(next to be held NA December 2003)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court (judges are appointed jointly by the
president and vice president) note: there is also a Supreme Court in
the Turkish Cypriot area

Political parties and leaders:  Greek Cypriot area: Democratic Party
or DIKO [Tassos PAPADOPOULOS]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos
ANASTASIADHIS]; Eurodemocratic Renewal Movement or KEA [Antonis
PASCHALIDES]; Fighting Democratic Movement or ADIK [Dinos MIKHAILIDIS];
Green Party of Cyprus [George PERDIKIS]; New Horizons [Nikolaus KOUTSOU];
Restorative Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party)
[Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS]; Social Democrats Movement or KISOS (formerly
United Democratic Union of Cyprus or EDEK) [Yiannakis OMIROU]; United
Democrats Movement or EDE [George VASSILIOU]; Turkish Cypriot area:
Communal Liberation Party or TKP [Huseyin ANGOLEMLI]; Democratic Party
or DP [Salih COSAR]; National Birth Party or UDP [Enver EMIN]; National
Unity Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU];
Patriotic Unity Movement or YBH [Izzet IZCAN]; Republican Turkish Party
or CTP [Mehmet ALI TALAT]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Confederation of Cypriot Workers
or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is;
Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian
Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)

International organization participation:  Australia Group, C, CCC,
CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,

Diplomatic representation in the US:   Ambassador Erato KOZAKOU-MARCOULLIS
chancery:  representative of the Turkish Cypriot area in the US is Osman
ERTUG; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1] (202)
887-6198 consulate(s) general: New York telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Donald K. BANDLER embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets,
Engomi, 2407 Nicosia mailing address:  (22) 780944

Flag description:  white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island
(the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two
green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches
symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and
Turkish communities note:  bottom between which is a red crescent and
red star on a white field

Economy Cyprus

Economy - overview:  Economic affairs are affected by the division
of the country. The Greek Cypriot economy is prosperous but highly
susceptible to external shocks. Erratic growth rates in the 1990s
reflect the economy's vulnerability to swings in tourist arrivals,
caused by political instability in the region and fluctuations in
economic conditions in Western Europe.  Economic policy is focused on
meeting the criteria for admission to the EU. As in the Turkish sector,
water shortages are a perennial problem; a few desalination plants
are now online. The Turkish Cypriot economy has less than one-half the
per capita GDP of the south. Because it is recognized only by Turkey,
it has had much difficulty arranging foreign financing, and foreign
firms have hesitated to invest there. It remains heavily dependent on
agriculture and government service, which together employ about half of
the work force. To compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey provides
substantial direct and indirect aid to tourism, education, industry, etc.

GDP:  Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $9.1 billion (2001
est.); Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $1.1 billion
(2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  Greek Cypriot area: 2.6% (2001 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area: 0.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita:  Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $15,000
(2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $7,000
(2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  Greek Cypriot area: agriculture 4.6%,
industry 19.9%, services 75.5% (2001); Turkish Cypriot area: agriculture
8.3%, industry 20.7%, services 71.0% (2000)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  Greek Cypriot area: 1.9% (2001 est.);
Turkish Cypriot area: 53.2% (2000 est.)

Labor force:  Greek Cypriot area: 291,000; Turkish Cypriot area: 86,300

Labor force - by occupation:  Greek Cypriot area: services 73%, industry
22%, agriculture 5% (2000); Turkish Cypriot area: services 56.4%,
industry 22.8%, agriculture 20.8% (1998)

Unemployment rate:  Greek Cypriot area: 3% (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot
area: 5.6% (1999 est.)

Budget:  revenues: Greek Cypriot area - $2.4 billion (2001 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area - $294 million (2000 est.)  expenditures: Greek Cypriot
area - $3.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $539 million
(2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area - $495 million, including capital
expenditures of $60 million (2000 est.)

Industries:  food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
tourism, wood products

Industrial production growth rate:  Greek Cypriot area: 2.2% (1999);
Turkish Cypriot area: -0.3% (1999)

Electricity - production:  3.13 billion kWh (1999); Turkish Cypriot area:
NA kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0% hydro: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  2.911 billion kWh (1999); Turkish Cypriot
area: NA kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  potatoes, citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes,
olives, vegetables

Exports:  Greek Cypriot area: $851 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area: $50.7 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities:  Greek Cypriot area: citrus, potatoes, grapes,
wine, cement, clothing and shoes; Turkish Cypriot area: citrus, potatoes,

Exports - partners:  Greek Cypriot area: EU 36% (UK 17%, Greece 8%),
Russia 8%, Syria 7%, Lebanon 5%, US 2% (2000); Turkish Cypriot area:
Turkey 51%, UK 31%, other EU 16.5% (1999)

Imports:  Greek Cypriot area: $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area: $424.9 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities:  Greek Cypriot area: consumer goods, petroleum
and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery; Turkish Cypriot area:
food, minerals, chemicals, machinery

Imports - partners:  Greek Cypriot area: EU 52% (UK 11%, Italy 9%, Greece
9%, Germany 7%), US 10% (2000); Turkish Cypriot area: Turkey 59%, UK 13%,
other EU 13% (1999)

Debt - external:  Greek Cypriot area: $NA; Turkish Cypriot area: $NA

Economic aid - recipient:  Greek Cypriot area - $17 million (1998);
Turkish Cypriot area - $700 million from Turkey in grants and loans
(1990-97) which are usually forgiven

Currency:  Greek Cypriot area: Cypriot pound (CYP); Turkish Cypriot area:
Turkish lira (TRL)

Currency code:  CYP; TRL

Exchange rates:  Cypriot pounds per US dollar - 0.6518 (January 2002),
0.6427 (2001), 0.6208 (2000), 0.5423 (1999), 0.5170 (1998), 0.5135 (1997);
Turkish liras per US dollar - 1,370,629 (January 2002), 1,223,140 (2001),
625,219 (2000), 418,783 (1999), 260,724 (1998), 151,865 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Cyprus

Telephones - main lines in use:  Greek Cypriot area: 405,000 (1998);
Turkish Cypriot area: 83,162 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  Greek Cypriot area: 68,000 (1998);
Turkish Cypriot area: 70,000 (1999)

Telephone system:  general assessment: excellent in both the Greek Cypriot
and Turkish Cypriot areas domestic: open wire, fiber-optic cable, and
microwave radio relay international: tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and
5 fiber-optic submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat
(1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik,
and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations:   AM 7, FM 60, shortwave 1 (1998); Turkish
Cypriot area: Radios:  Greek Cypriot area: 310,000 (1997); Turkish
Cypriot area: 56,450 (1994)

Television broadcast stations:  Greek Cypriot area: 4 (plus 225 low-power
repeaters) (September 1995); Turkish Cypriot area: 4 (plus 5 repeaters)
(September 1995)

Televisions:  Greek Cypriot area: 248,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot area:
52,300 (1994)

Internet country code:  .cy

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  6 (2000)

Internet users:  120,000 (2001)

Transportation Cyprus

Railways:  0 km

Highways:   10,663 km (1998 est.); Turkish Cypriot area:   Greek Cypriot
area: Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos,

Merchant marine:  total: 1,254 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
22,802,712 GRT/36,337,768 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned
ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Austria 12, Belgium 2,
Bulgaria 2, Canada 3, Chile 2, China 16, Croatia 2, Cuba 11, Finland 1,
Germany 229, Greece 607, Guam 1, Hong Kong 6, India 6, Iran 1, Ireland 1,
Israel 5, Italy 1, Japan 26, Latvia 14, Lebanon 1, Lithuania 2, Mexico 1,
Monaco 10, Netherlands 30, Norway 23, Panama 1, Philippines 2, Poland 19,
Portugal 2, Russia 57, Singapore 2, Slovenia 2, South Korea 4, Spain
7, Sudan 2, Sweden 6, Switzerland 4, Turkey 1, Ukraine 1, United Arab
Emirates 13, United Kingdom 6, United States 4, Vietnam 1 (2002 est.)
ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 438, cargo 378, chemical tanker 24,
combination bulk 31, combination ore/oil 2, container 133, liquefied gas
4, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 131, refrigerated
cargo 46, roll on/roll off 41, short-sea passenger 10, specialized tanker
3, vehicle carrier 3

Airports:  15 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 12 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to
2,437 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001) 914 to 1,523 m: 3

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m:
2 (2001)

Heliports:  7 (2001)

Military Cyprus

Military branches:  Greek area: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG;
including air and naval elements), Greek Cypriot Police Turkish area:
Turkish Cypriot Security Force (GKK)

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 200,071 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 137,322
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 6,616
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $370 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  4.2% (FY00)

Transnational Issues Cyprus

Disputes - international:  reunification talks - the first since 1974
hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous areas, a
Greek Cypriot area controlled by the internationally recognized Cypriot
Government (59% of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area
(37% of the island), that are separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the
island) - have recommenced; there are two UK sovereign base areas mostly
within the Greek-Cypriot portion of the island

Illicit drugs:  minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes
and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey;
some cocaine transits as well

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

Cyprus Mail

Cyprus News

Cyprus News Agency

The Cyprus Weekly

Latest News from Cyprus

Press and Information Office

Arts & Culture
Cyprus Cultural Informer

Cyprus Museum of Natural History

The Paradise Jazz Festival Cyprus

Business & Economy
The Bank of Cyprus Group

The Central Bank of Cyprus

The Cyprus Stock Exchange

Cyprus State Fairs Authority

Cyprus Airways

Cyprus Ports Authority

Destination Cyprus - Travel and Tour Guides



A Window on Cyprus

Cyprus Cultural Informer

City Guides


Limassol (Lemesos)

North Cyprus (the Turkish part of Cyprus)

North Cyprus

Cyprus College

University of Cyprus

A History of Cyprus

Cyprus History

Cyprus Directory




Education Resources

Natural Stone Veneer
Stone Directory

Las Vegas Graphics & Web Design
Las Vegas Graphic & Web Design
Graphic Design & Web Design in Las Vegas

Dentures. Complete Dentures. Partial Dentures.
 Complete Dentures
 Partial Dentures

Leadership Courses & Management Courses in Las Vegas USA
Management Training Courses in Las Vegas USA
Leadership Training & Management Courses in Las Vegas

Management  Best Practices
Management Best Practices

Management Consulting Courses
Management Consulting Courses

Management Training Courses
Management Training Courses

Business School Online
Online Business Schools

Open Courseware
Free Open Courses

Online Business Courses
Business Schools Online

Business Management Courses
Business Management Courses

CEO Magazine
CEO Magazine

CEO Library
CEO Library

CEO Club
Executive Networking

CEO Books
CEO Books

MBA Review
Review of MBA Programs

Best MBA
Ranking of World's Best MBA Programs

MBA distance Learning
Online MBA

Top Ranking MBA
Ranking of Top MBA Programs

Online Executive MBA
Online Executive MBA Programs

Accelerated MBA
Accelerated MBA Programs

Las Vegas Web Design
Las Vegas Web Design