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Flag of Croatia

Capital City: Zagreb

Border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia

Internet Links

Official Sites of the Republic of Croatia
Government of the Republic of Croatia

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Embassy of the Republic of Croatia

Hrvatski zavod za statistiku

Drzavni hidrometeoroloski zavod


Map of Croatia



Background:  In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom
known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became
an independent communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO.
Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it
took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying
Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands.  Under UN supervision
the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia
in 1998.

Geography Croatia

Location:  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates:  45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 56,542 sq km water: 128 sq km land: 56,414 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:  total: 2,185 km border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina
932 km, Hungary 329 km, Yugoslavia 254 km, Slovenia 670 km

Coastline:  5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)

Maritime claims:  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of
exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:  Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant
with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

Terrain:  geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border,
low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point:
Dinara 1,830 m

Natural resources:  oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium,
natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 24% permanent crops: 2% other: 74% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  30 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:  air pollution (from metallurgical plants)
and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from
industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of
infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:  controls most land routes from Western Europe to
Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits

People Croatia

Population:  4,390,751 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 18.3% (male 411,847; female 390,797) 15-64
years: 66.3% (male 1,461,305; female 1,448,973) 65 years and over: 15.4%
(male 252,970; female 424,859) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.12% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  12.8 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  11.31 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  9.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.6 male(s)/female total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  7.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   77.96 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.93 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  350 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s) adjective: Croatian

Ethnic groups:  Croat 78.1%, Serb 12.2%, Bosniak 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%,
Slovene 0.5%, Czech 0.4%, Albanian 0.3%, Montenegrin 0.3%, Roma 0.2%,
others 6.6% (1991)

Religions:  Roman Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Muslim 1.2%, Protestant
0.4%, others and unknown 10.8% (1991)

Languages:  Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech,
Slovak, and German)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 97% male: 99% female: 95% (1991 est.)

Government Croatia

Country name:   Republic of Croatia conventional short form: Government
type:  presidential/parliamentary democracy

Capital:  Zagreb

Administrative divisions:  20 counties (zupanije, zupanija -
singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular); Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska
Zupanija, Brodsko-Posavska Zupanija, Dubrovacko-Neretvanska Zupanija,
Istarska Zupanija, Karlovacka Zupanija, Koprivnicko-Krizevacka Zupanija,
Krapinsko-Zagorska Zupanija, Licko-Senjska Zupanija, Medimurska Zupanija,
Osjecko-Baranjska Zupanija, Pozesko-Slavonska Zupanija, Primorsko-Goranska
Zupanija, Sibensko-Kninska Zupanija, Sisacko-Moslavacka Zupanija,
Splitsko-Dalmatinska Zupanija, Varazdinska Zupanija, Viroviticko-Podravska
Zupanija, Vukovarsko-Srijemska Zupanija, Zadarska Zupanija, Zagreb*,
Zagrebacka Zupanija

Independence:  25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday:  Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)

Constitution:  adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system:  based on civil law system

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC (since
18 February 2000) head of government: Prime Minister Ivica RACAN (since
27 January 2000); Deputy Prime Ministers Goran GRANIC (since 27 January
2000), Zeljka ANTUNOVIC (since 27 January 2000), Slavko LINIC (since 27
January 2000) cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister
and approved by the House of Representatives elections: president elected
by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 7 February 2000
(next to be held NA 2005); prime minister nominated by the president in
line with the balance of power in the Assembly note: government coalition
- SDP, HSLS, HSS, LP, HNS; a fifth party, the Istrian Democratic Assembly
(IDS), withdrew in June 2001 election results: Stjepan MESIC elected
president; percent of vote - Stjepan MESIC (HNS) 56%, Drazen BUDISA
(HSLS) 44%

Legislative branch:  unicameral Assembly or Sabor (151 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - House of
Counties was abolished in March 2001 election results: Assembly (then
referred to as the House of Representatives) - percent of vote by party -
NA%; seats by party - HDZ 46, SDP 44, HSLS 24, HSS 17, HSP/HKDU 5, IDS 4,
HNS 2, independents 4, minority representatives 5 elections: Assembly -
last held 2-3 January 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2003)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for both
courts appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the
Republic, which is elected by the House of Representatives

Political parties and leaders:  Alliance of Croatian Coast and Mountains
Department or PGS [Luciano SUSANJ]; Croatian Christian Democratic Union
or HKDU [Marko VESELICA]; Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Ivo SANADER];
Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Dobroslav PARAGA]; Croatian Peasant Party
or HSS [Zlatko TOMCIC]; Croatian People's Party or HNS [Vesna PUSIC];
Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Drazen BUDISA]; Croatian True
Revival Party or HIP [Miroslav TUDJMAN]; Independent Democratic Serb
Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or
IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Liberal Party or LP [leader NA]; Social Democratic
Party of Croatia or SDP [Ivica RACAN] note: the Social Democratic Party
or SDP and the Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS formed a coalition
as did the HSS, HNS, LP, and IDS, which together defeated the Croatian
Democratic Union or HDZ in the 2000 lower house parliamentary election;
the IDS subsequently left the governing coalition in June 2001 over its
inability to win greater autonomy for Istria

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Ivan GRDESIC FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936 consulate(s) general: Chicago,
Los Angeles, New York telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899 chancery: 2343
Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Lawrence G. ROSSIN embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, 10000 Zagreb mailing
address: use street address telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200 FAX: [385]
(1) 661-2373

Flag description:  red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian
coat of arms (red and white checkered)

Economy Croatia

Economy - overview:  Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic
of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized
area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav
average. The economy emerged from its mild recession in 2000 with
tourism the main factor, but massive structural unemployment remains
a key negative element. The government's failure to press the economic
reforms needed to spur growth is largely the result of coalition politics
and public resistance, particularly from the trade unions, to measures
that would cut jobs, wages, or social benefits. As a result, the country
is likely to experience only moderate growth without disciplined fiscal
and structural reform.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $36.1 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $8,300 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 10% industry: 33% services:
57% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 23.3% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  29 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  1.7 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:  23% (December 2001)

Budget:  revenues: $8.6 billion expenditures: $9 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal,
electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood
products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and
petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:  6% (2001)

Electricity - production:  10.578 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 44.76% hydro: 55.22%
other: 0.02% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  12.638 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  900 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  3.7 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, barley,
alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, soybeans, potatoes; livestock,
dairy products

Exports:  $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Exports - commodities:  transport equipment, textiles, chemicals,
foodstuffs, fuels

Exports - partners:  Italy 24%, Germany 15%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 12%,
Slovenia 9%, Austria 5.8% (2001 est.)

Imports:  $8.4 billion (c.i.f., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  machinery, transport and electrical equipment,
chemicals, fuels and lubricants, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:  Italy 17%, Germany 16.9%, Slovenia 7.9%, Russia 7.5%,
Austria 7% (2001 est.)

Debt - external:  $11 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  $NA

Currency:  kuna (HRK)

Currency code:  HRK

Exchange rates:  kuna per US dollar - 8.452 (January 2002), 8.340 (2001),
8.277 (2000), 7.112 (1999), 6.362 (1998), 6.101 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Croatia

Telephones - main lines in use:  1,721,139 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  1.3 million (2001)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: reconstruction plan
calls for replacement of all analog circuits with digital and enlarging
the network; a backup will be included in the plan for the main trunk
international: digital international service is provided through the main
switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL)
fiber-optic project which consists of two fiber-optic trunk connections
with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and
Dubrovnik; Croatia is also investing in ADRIA 1, a joint fiber-optic
project with Germany, Albania, and Greece (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 16, FM 98, shortwave 5 (1999)

Radios:  1.51 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  36 (plus 321 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions:  1.22 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .hr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  9 (2000)

Internet users:  200,000 (2001)

Transportation Croatia

Railways:  total: 2,726 km standard gauge: 2,726 km 1.435-m gauge (NA
electrified) (2000)

Highways:  total: 28,009 km paved: 23,695 km (including 330 km of
expressways) unpaved: 4,314 km (2001)

Waterways:  785 km note: (perennially navigable; large sections of Sava
blocked by downed bridges, silt, and debris)

Pipelines:  crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310 km

Ports and harbors:  Dubrovnik, Dugi Rat, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka,
Sibenik, Split, Vukovar (inland waterway port on Danube), Zadar

Merchant marine:  total: 49 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 681,465
GRT/1,076,315 DWT note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here
as a flag of convenience: Hong Kong 1 (2002 est.)  ships by type:
bulk 14, cargo 13, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 5, container 1,
multi-functional large-load carrier 3, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 2,
refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea passenger 3

Airports:  67 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 22 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047
m: 6 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 8 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 45 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to
1,523 m: 7 under 914 m: 37 (2001)

Heliports:  1 (2001)

Military Croatia

Military branches:  Ground Forces (Hrvatska Vojska, HV), Naval Forces,
Air and Air Defense Forces

Military manpower - military age:  19 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,086,578 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 860,497
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 30,037
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $520 million (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.39% (2002 est.)

Transnational Issues Croatia

Disputes - international:  Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina continue
discussions on the disputed boundary in the Una River near Kostajnica,
Hrvatska Dubica, and Zeljava; Bosnia and Herzegovina also protests
Croatian claim to the tip of the Klek Peninsula and several islands
near Neum; Hungary opposes Croatian plan to build a hydropower dam
on the boundary stream Drava; Slovenia and Croatia have not obtained
parliamentary ratification of 2001 land and maritime boundary treaty
which cedes villages on the Dragonja River and Sveta Gera (Trdinov Peak)
to Croatia, and most of Pirin Bay to Slovenia, but restricts Slovenian
access to the open sea; Croatia and Yugoslavia continue to discuss
disputed Prevlaka Peninsula and control over the Gulf of Kotor despite
imminent UN intention to withdraw observer mission (UNMOP); Croatia and
Italy are still trying to resolve bilateral property and ethnic minority
rights dating from World War II

Illicit drugs:  transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian
heroin to Western Europe; has been used as a transit point for maritime
shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002




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