World Online Education - World Portal : International Online Education Portal
Worldwide Online Education
International Online Education Portal
Learn About the World's Online Business, Education, Economy, Politics, Culture, Religion, Media and More









Online Business Education. Economy. Politics. Culture. Religion. Media

Flag of China

Country Profile

Capital City: Beijing (pop 7,362,426)
Beijing Municipal Government.

Other major Cities: Shanghai (pop 8,214,384)
Information Office of Shanghai Municipality.
Tianjin (pop 5,855,044), Shenyang (pop 4,669,737), Wuhan (pop 4,040,113), Guangzhou (Canton, pop 3,935,193), Chongqing (pop 3,127,178), Harbin (Ha'erbin, pop 2,990,921), Chengdu (pop 2,954,872).

Local Time: UTC +8h
(China extends across five times zones, but the country uses a single time zone.)

Type: Communist party-led state
Constitution: 4 December 1982.
Head of state: President Hu Jintao
Independence: Unification under the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty 221 BC; Qing (Ch'ing or Manchu) Dynasty replaced by a republic on 12 February 1912;
People's Republic established 1 October 1949.

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Total area: 9.6 million sq. km. (about 3.7 million sq. mi.), third largest country in the world, slightly smaller than the US and almost as large as the combined nations of Europe.
Terrain: Plains, deltas, and hills in east; mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west.
Border countries: Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Vietnam

Climate: From tropical in south to subarctic in north.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Chinese (singular and plural).
Population: 1 300 100 000.
GNI per capita PPP: $ 6193 (year) Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.6%; beside the Han population China recognizes fifty-five minority nationalities which comprise 8.4 percent of China's total population among them are: Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uygur, Yi, Mongolian, Tibetan, Buyi, Korean and other nationalities.
Religions: Officially atheist; Taoism, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity.
Language: PuTongHua (Mandarin), Wu (spoken in Shanghai), Yue (Cantonese) plus other dialects like Min, Hakka (Kejia), Gan and Xiang.
Chinese is spoken by more people than any other language in the world.
Literacy: 81%


Currency: Yuan Renminbi (CNY)

Natural resources: Coal, iron ore, crude oil, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, world's largest hydropower potential.

Agriculture products: Rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed, pork, fish.

Industries: Iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications.

Exports partners:
USA 21.1%, Hong Kong 17.4%, Japan 13.6%, South Korea 4.6%, Germany 4% (2003)

Imports partners: Japan 18%, Taiwan 11.9%, South Korea 10.4%, USA 8.2%, Germany 5.9% (2003)

Internet Links

Official Sites of China

General Office, National Committee, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC)

Government Online Project

China National Space Administration

China Internet Information Center

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Diplomatic Missions
Chinese Embassy in the United Kingdom

Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the USA

China Visa

China's Missions Overseas

China Statistical Information Network

Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong

China Meteorological Bureau

Maps of China

Maps of Yangtze

Map of Asia



Background:  For centuries China stood as a leading civilization,
outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences. But in the
19th and early 20th centuries, China was beset by civil unrest, major
famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II,
the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that, while
ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday
life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his
successor DENG Xiaoping gradually introduced market-oriented reforms
and decentralized economic decision making, and output quadrupled by
2000. Political controls remain tight even while economic controls
continue to be relaxed.

Geography China

Location:  Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow
Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates:  35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references:  Asia

Area:  total: 9,596,960 sq km land: 9,326,410 sq km water: 270,550 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:  total: 22,147.34 km border countries: Afghanistan
76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km,
Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423
km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km,
Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km,
Vietnam 1,281 km

Coastline:  14,500 km

Maritime claims:   200 NM continental shelf: Climate:  extremely diverse;
tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain:  mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains,
deltas, and hills in east

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m highest point:
Mount Everest 8,850 m (1999 est.)

Natural resources:  coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury,
tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite,
aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use:  arable land: 13% permanent crops: 1% other: 86% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  525,800 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern
and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts;
land subsidence

Environment - current issues:  air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur
dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal, produces acid rain; water
shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated
wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land
since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification;
trade in endangered species

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber
83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified:
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:  world's fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada,
and US); Mount Everest on the border with Nepal, is the world's tallest

People China

Population:  1,284,303,705 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:   24.3% (male 163,821,081; female 148,855,387) 15-64 years:
(male 43,834,528; female 49,382,568) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.87% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  15.85 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  6.77 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.1
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.89 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  27.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   73.86 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.82 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  less than 0.2% (2000-01 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  1.25 million (January 2001)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  17,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Chinese (singular and plural) adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups:  Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan,
Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

Religions:  Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 1%-2%, Christian 3%-4%
note: officially atheist (2002 est.)

Languages:  Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing
dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan
(Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages
(see Ethnic groups entry)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 81.5% male: 89.9% female: 72.7% (1995 est.)

Government China

Country name:  conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short
 PRC local long form:
Government type:  Communist state

Capital:  Beijing

Administrative divisions:  23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5
autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities**
(shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu,
Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei,
Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai,
Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*,
Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang; note - China considers Taiwan its 23rd
province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions
of Hong Kong and Macau

Independence:  221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221
BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912;
People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

National holiday:  Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic
of China, 1 October (1949)

Constitution:  most recent promulgation 4 December 1982

Legal system:  a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal
law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal
codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being made
to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March
1993) and Vice President HU Jintao (since 16 March 1998) elections:
president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress
for five-year terms; elections last held 16-18 March 1998 (next to be
held NA March 2003); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by
the National People's Congress head of government: Premier ZHU Rongji
(since 18 March 1998); Vice Premiers QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993),
LI Lanqing (29 March 1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 March 1995), and WEN
Jiabao (since 18 March 1998) cabinet: State Council appointed by the
National People's Congress (NPC) election results: JIANG Zemin reelected
president by the Ninth National People's Congress with a total of 2,882
votes (36 delegates voted against him, 29 abstained, and 32 did not
vote); HU Jintao elected vice president by the Ninth National People's
Congress with a total of 2,841 votes (67 delegates voted against him,
39 abstained, and 32 did not vote)

Legislative branch:  unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo
Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,979 seats; members elected by municipal, regional,
and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms) elections:
last held NA December 1997-NA February 1998 (next to be held late 2002-NA
March 2003) election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA

Judicial branch:  Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National
People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate
and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime,
and railway transport courts)

Political parties and leaders:  Chinese Communist Party or CCP [JIANG
Zemin, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered
small parties controlled by CCP

Political pressure groups and leaders:  no substantial political
opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the
Falungong sect and the China Democracy Party as potential rivals

International organization participation:  AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue
partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CCC, CDB, ESCAP, FAO,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO,
MONUC, NAM (observer), OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador YANG
Jiechi consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York,
and San Francisco FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582 telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500
chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Clark T. RANDT, Jr.  embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002 telephone: [86]
(10) 6532-3431 FAX: [86] (10) 6532-6422 consulate(s) general: Chengdu,
Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag description:  red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four
smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward
the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

Economy China

Economy - overview:  In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the
economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more
market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within a political
framework of strict Communist control, the economic influence of non-state
organizations and individual citizens has been steadily increasing.
The authorities have switched to a system of household and village
responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization,
increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry,
permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and
light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade
and investment. The result has been a quadrupling of GDP since 1978. In
2001, with its 1.27 billion people but a GDP of just $4,300 per capita,
China stood as the second largest economy in the world after the US
(measured on a purchasing power parity basis). Agriculture and industry
have posted major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong
and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment has helped spur output of
both domestic and export goods. On the darker side, the leadership has
often experienced in its hybrid system the worst results of socialism
(bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism (windfall gains and
growing income disparities). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked,
retightening central controls at intervals. The government has struggled
to (a) collect revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals;
(b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat
the large state-owned enterprises many of which had been shielded from
competition by subsidies and had been losing the ability to pay full
wages and pensions. From 80 to 120 million surplus rural workers are
adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through
part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes in central policy,
and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened China's population
control program, which is essential to maintaining long-term growth in
living standards.  Another long-term threat to continued rapid economic
growth is the deterioration in the environment, notably air pollution,
soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially in the
north. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic
development. Beijing will intensify efforts to stimulate growth through
spending on infrastructure - such as water control and power grids -
and poverty relief and through rural tax reform aimed at eliminating
arbitrary local levies on farmers. Access to the World Trade Organization
strengthens China's ability to maintain sturdy growth rates, and at
the same time puts additional pressure on the hybrid system of strong
political controls and growing market influences. Although Beijing has
claimed 7%-8% annual growth in recent years, many observers believe the
rate, while strong, is more like 5%.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $5.56 trillion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  7.3% (official estimate) (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $4,300 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 17.7% industry: 49.3% services:
33% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  10% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 30.4% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  40 (2001)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  0.8% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  706 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 50%, industry 23%, services 27%
(2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:  urban unemployment roughly 10%; substantial
unemployment and underemployment in rural areas (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $161.8 billion expenditures: $191.8 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2000)

Industries:  iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles
and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys,
food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate:  9.9% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  1.308 trillion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 81.83% hydro: 16.83%
other: 0.12% (2000) nuclear: 1.22%

Electricity - consumption:  1.206 trillion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  10.25 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  400 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea,
millet, barley, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish

Exports:  $262.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  machinery and equipment; textiles and clothing,
footwear, toys and sporting goods; mineral fuels

Exports - partners:  US 21%, Hong Kong 18%, Japan 17%, South Korea,
Germany, Netherlands, UK, Singapore, Taiwan (2000)

Imports:  $236.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, plastics,
iron and steel, chemicals

Imports - partners:  Japan 18%, Taiwan 11%, South Korea 10%, US 10%
Germany, Hong Kong, Russia, Malaysia (2000)

Debt - external:  $167 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $NA

Currency:  yuan (CNY)

Currency code:  CNY

Exchange rates:  yuan per US dollar - 8.2767 (January 2002), 8.2771
(2001), 8.2785 (2000), 8.2783 (1999), 8.2790 (1998), 8.2898 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications China

Telephones - main lines in use:  135 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  65 million (January 2001)

Telephone system:  general assessment: domestic and international
services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed
domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many
towns domestic:  have been installed; a domestic satellite system with
55 earth stations is in place international: satellite earth stations -
5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian
Ocean region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); several
international fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Russia,
and Germany (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)

Radios:  417 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  3,240 (of which 209 are operated by China
Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations and nearly 3,000 are
local city stations) (1997)

Televisions:  400 million (1997)

Internet country code:  .cn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  3 (2000)

Internet users:  26.5 million (2001)

Transportation China

Railways:  total: 67,524 km (including 5,400 km of provincial "local"
rails) standard gauge: 63,924 km 1.435-m gauge (13,362 km electrified;
20,250 km double-track) narrow gauge: 3,600 km 0.750-m and 1.000-m gauge
local industrial lines (1999 est.)

Highways:  total: 1.4 million km paved: 271,300 km (with at least 16,000
km of expressways) unpaved: 1,128,700 km (1999)

Waterways:  110,000 km (1999)

Pipelines:  crude oil 9,070 km; petroleum products 560 km; natural gas
9,383 km (1998)

Ports and harbors:  Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu,
Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai,
Shantou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Wenzhou, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang

Merchant marine:  total: 1,764 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
16,915,047 GRT/25,366,296 DWT ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 328,
cargo 822, chemical tanker 25, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 1,
container 134, liquefied gas 26, multi-functional large-load carrier 6,
passenger 7, passenger/cargo 45, petroleum tanker 263, refrigerated cargo
26, roll on/roll off 23, short-sea passenger 42, specialized tanker 3,
vehicle carrier 1 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered
here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 1, Germany 1, Hong Kong 16, Japan
2, Panama 2, South Korea 1, Spain 1, Taiwan 9, Tanzania 1, Turkey 1
(2002 est.)

Airports:  489 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:   88 1,524 to 2,437 m: Airports - with
unpaved runways:  total: 165 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524
to 2,437 m: 29 914 to 1,523 m: 56 under 914 m: 78 (2001)

Military China

Military branches:  People's Liberation Army (PLA): comprises ground
forces, Navy (including naval infantry and naval aviation), Air Force,
and II Artillery Corps (strategic missile force), People's Armed Police
Force (internal security troops, nominally a state security body but
included by the Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered to
be an adjunct to the PLA), militia

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 370,087,489
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49:
203,003,036 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 10,089,458
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $20.048 billion (2002); note -
this is the officially announced figure, but actual defense spending
more likely ranges from $45 billion to $65 billion for 2002

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.6% (2002); note - this is the
officially announced figure, but actual defense spending is more likely
between 3.5% to 5.0% of GDP for 2002

Transnational Issues China

Disputes - international:  in 2000, China joined ASEAN discussions towards
creating a South China Sea "code of conduct" - a non-legally binding,
confidence-building measure; much of the rugged, militarized boundary
with India is in dispute, but talks to resolve the least contested middle
sector resumed in 2001; ongoing talks with Tajikistan have failed to
resolve the longstanding dispute over the indefinite boundary; Kazakhstan
is working rapidly with China to delimit its large open borders to
control population migration, illegal activities, and trade; 2001 Treaty
of Good Neighborliness, Friendship, and Cooperation commits Russia and
China to seek peaceable unanimity over disputed alluvial islands at the
confluence of the Amur and Ussuri rivers and a small island on the Argun;
involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with Malaysia,
Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary
agreement with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin awaits ratification; Paracel
Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims
Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as
does Taiwan; demarcation of the land boundary with Vietnam has commenced,
but details of the alignment have not been made public; 33-km section of
boundary with North Korea in the Paektu-san (mountain) area is indefinite

Illicit drugs:  major transshipment point for heroin produced in the
Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country
for chemical precursors and methamphetamine

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

China News

China Daily

China Internet Information Center

People's Daily

Shanghai Daily



South China Morning Post

The Standard


China Central Television

China Radio International

International News on China
Yahoo! Full Coverage China

Arts & Culture
Chinese Archery

China Art Network

China Avant Garde

China the Beautiful

Chinese Propaganda Poster

Lei Feng

New Chinese Art

Red Gate Gallery

Zhong Guo Guo Jia Tu Shu Guan

Business & Economy
Zhongguo Renmin Yinhang

Bank of China


Shanghai Stock Exchange

Shenzhen Stock Exchange

Chambers of Commerce in China

China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)

China National Arts & Crafts Import & Export Group
Major Airlines in China
Air China

China Eastern Airlines

China Northern Airlines

China Southern Airlines

Major Airports in China
Beijing Capital International Airport

Shanghai International Airport

Destination China - Travel and Tour Guides Discover China Mainland:

China National Tourism Administration

China National Tourist Office New York

China National Tourist Office, Toronto, Canada

Local Tourism Administrations

Local Tourism Administration Offices

Guangdong Tourism Bureau

Guangxi Travel online

Tourism Jiangsu

Tibet Tourism Bureau

Yunnan and Greater Mekong Region

Zhejiang Online

China ABC - Brief Introduction to China

China Today

China Travel Service

China Travel on the Net!

Discover Yangtze

City Guides

Beijing Municipal Government

eBeijing International

Beijing Tourism Information

The Beijing Page


Shanghai Tour



Tour Guides
Muztagh Travel

Beijing University

China Education and Research Network

Nan Kai University

Northeastern University (NEU)

Southeast University

Tianjin University

Tsinghua University

Xiamen University

Falun Gong
Falun Dafa Information Center

The Official Chinese View
Xinhua Commentary calls for long-term fight against Falun Gong cult

Chinese History

History of China

Oral History In China

World History Archives: History of China

Chinese character dictionary

Learning Chinese Online

Marjorie Chan's ChinaLinks

On-line Chinese Tools



Olympic Games Beijing 2008

Baidu Webguide

CEI Infonavi Beijing

Newsgroup of China







Education Resources

Natural Stone Veneer
Stone Directory

Las Vegas Graphics & Web Design
Las Vegas Graphic & Web Design
Graphic Design & Web Design in Las Vegas

Dentures. Complete Dentures. Partial Dentures.
 Complete Dentures
 Partial Dentures

Leadership Courses & Management Courses in Las Vegas USA
Management Training Courses in Las Vegas USA
Leadership Training & Management Courses in Las Vegas

Management  Best Practices
Management Best Practices

Management Consulting Courses
Management Consulting Courses

Management Training Courses
Management Training Courses

Business School Online
Online Business Schools

Open Courseware
Free Open Courses

Online Business Courses
Business Schools Online

Business Management Courses
Business Management Courses

CEO Magazine
CEO Magazine

CEO Library
CEO Library

CEO Club
Executive Networking

CEO Books
CEO Books

MBA Review
Review of MBA Programs

Best MBA
Ranking of World's Best MBA Programs

MBA distance Learning
Online MBA

Top Ranking MBA
Ranking of Top MBA Programs

Online Executive MBA
Online Executive MBA Programs

Accelerated MBA
Accelerated MBA Programs

Las Vegas Web Design
Las Vegas Web Design