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Chad (Tchad)
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Capital City: N'Djamena

Republique du Tchad

La Poste et les Telecommunications du Tchad



Background:  Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured
three decades of ethnic warfare as well as invasions by Libya before
a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government
eventually suppressed or came to terms with most political-military
groups, settled a territorial dispute with Libya on terms favorable to
Chad, drafted a democratic constitution, and held multiparty presidential
and National Assembly elections in 1996 and 1997 respectively. In 1998
a new rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which continued to escalate
throughout 2000. A peace agreement, signed in January 2002 between the
government and the rebels, provides for the demobilization of the rebels
and their reintegration into the political system. Despite movement
toward democratic reform, power remains in the hands of a northern
ethnic oligarchy.

Geography Chad

Location:  Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates:  15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references:  Africa

Area:  total: 1.284 million sq km water: 24,800 sq km land: 1,259,200
sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly more than three times the size of California

Land boundaries:  total: 5,968 km border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km,
Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km,
Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain:  broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in
northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m highest point:
Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources:  petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way),
uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Land use:  arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% other: 97% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  200 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north;
periodic droughts; locust plagues

Environment - current issues:  inadequate supplies of potable water;
improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water
pollution; desertification

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping

Geography - note:  landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water
body in the Sahel

People Chad

Population:  8,997,237 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 47.8% (male 2,162,732; female 2,135,354)
15-64 years: 49.4% (male 2,108,134; female 2,340,189) 65 years and over:
2.8% (male 103,683; female 147,145) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  3.27% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  47.74 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  15.06 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7
male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  93.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   53.4 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  6.5 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  5%-7% (2001)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  300,000 (2001)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  14,000 (confirmed AIDS cases, actual number far
higher but difficult to estimate) (2001)

Nationality:  noun: Chadian(s) adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups:  200 distinct groups; in the north and center: Arabs,
Gorane (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi,
Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are
Muslim; in the south:  are Christian or animist; about 1,000 French
citizens live in Chad

Religions:  Muslim 51%, Christian 35%, animist 7%, other 7%

Languages:  French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south),
more than 120 different languages and dialects

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or
Arabic total population: 40% male: 49% female: 31% (1998)

Government Chad

Country name:  conventional long form: Republic of Chad conventional short
form: Chad local long form: Republique du Tchad local short form: Tchad

Government type:  republic

Capital:  N'Djamena

Administrative divisions:  14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera,
Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari,
Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile note: instead of 14 prefectures, there may be
a new administrative structure of 28 departments (departments, singular -
department), and 1 city*; Assongha, Baguirmi, Bahr El Gazal, Bahr Koh,
Batha Oriental, Batha Occidental, Biltine, Borkou, Dababa, Ennedi, Guera,
Hadjer Lamis, Kabia, Kanem, Lac, Lac Iro, Logone Occidental, Logone
Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Boneye, Mayo-Dallah, Monts de Lam, N'djamena*,
Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile Oriental, Tandjile Occidental, Tibesti

Independence:  11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution:  passed by referendum 31 March 1996

Legal system:  based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since
4 December 1990) head of government: Prime Minister Nagoum YAMASSOUM
(since 13 December 1999) cabinet: Council of State, members appointed
by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister election
results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY reelected president; percent of vote -
Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 63%, Ngarlegy YORONGAR 16%, Saleh KEBZABO 7% note:
government coalition - MPS, UNDR, and URD elections: president elected by
popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least
50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must
stand for a second round of voting; last held 20 May 2001 (next to be
held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president

Legislative branch:  bicameral according to constitution, consists of a
National Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms) and a Senate (not yet created and size unspecified,
members to serve six-year terms, one-third of membership renewable
every two years) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party - MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, URD 5, UNDR 3, others
11 elections: National Assembly - last held 25 April 2002 (next to be
held in NA April 2006)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts;
Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders:  Federation Action for the Republic or
FAR [Ngarlejy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or
RNDP [Mamadou BISSO]; National Union for Development and Renewal or UNDR
[Saleh KEBZABO]; National Union for Renewal and Democracy or UNRD [leader
NA]; Party for Liberty and Democracy or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH];
Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]
(originally in opposition but now the party in power and the party of the
president); Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lal Mahamat CHOUA];
Union for Democracy and the Republic or UDR [Jean Bawoyeu ALINGUE]; Union
for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen.  Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]; Viva
Rally for Development and Progress or Viva RNDP [Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW (signatory),

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Hassaballah Abdelhadi Ahmat SOUBIANE chancery: 2002 R Street NW,
Washington, DC 20009 FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937 telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Christopher E. GOLDTHWAIT embassy: Avenue
 B. P. 413, N'Djamena telephone:
Flag description:  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the
flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms
centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

Economy Chad

Economy - overview:  Chad's primarily agricultural economy will be boosted
by major oilfield and pipeline projects that began in 2000. Over 80% of
Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and stock raising for
their livelihood.  Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of
Chad's export earnings, but Chad will begin to export oil in 2004. Chad's
economy has long been handicapped by its land-locked position, high energy
costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and
foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. A
consortium led by two US companies is investing $3.7 billion to develop
oil reserves estimated at 1 billion barrels in southern Chad.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $8.9 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  8% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,030 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 38% industry: 13% services:
49% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:  80% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  3% (2000 est.)

Labor force:  NA

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture more than 80% (subsistence
farming, herding, and fishing)

Unemployment rate:  NA%

Budget:  revenues: $198 million expenditures: $218 million, including
capital expenditures of $146 million (1998 est.)

Industries:  cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium
carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate:  5% (1995)

Electricity - production:  92 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0%
(2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  85.56 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes,
manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Exports:  $172 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:  cotton, cattle, gum arabic

Exports - partners:  Portugal 38%, Germany 12%, Thailand, Costa Rica,
South Africa, France, Nigeria (2001)

Imports:  $223 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and transportation equipment, industrial
goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners:  France 40%, Cameroon 13%, Nigeria 12%, India 5%

Debt - external:  $1.1 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $238.3 million (1995); note - $125 million
committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million committed by African
Development Bank

Currency:  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:  XAF

Exchange rates:  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US
dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70
(1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the
XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Chad

Telephones - main lines in use:  10,260 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  20,000 (2002)

Telephone system:  general assessment: primitive system domestic:
fair system of radiotelephone communication stations international:
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios:  1.67 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  1 (1997)

Televisions:  10,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .td

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  1,000 (2000)

Transportation Chad

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 33,400 km paved: 450 km note: probably no more than
8,000 km of the total receive maintenance, the remainder being desert
tracks (2000) unpaved: 32,950 km

Waterways:  2,000 km

Ports and harbors:  none

Airports:  49 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 7 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m:
3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 42 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 914 to
1,523 m: 20 under 914 m: 10 (2001)

Military Chad

Military branches:  Armed Forces (including National Army, Air Force,
and Gendarmerie), Rapid Intervention Force, National and Nomadic Guard
(GNNT), Presidential Security Guard, Police

Military manpower - military age:  20 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,881,769 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 985,094
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 82,003
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $31 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.9% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Chad

Disputes - international:  Lake Chad Commission urges signatories
Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over
lake region, the site of continuing armed clashes; Nigeria requests and
Chad rejects redemarcation of boundary, which lacks clear demarcation in
sections and has caused several cross-border incidents; Chadian rebels
from Aozou reside in Libya

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002




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