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Cambodia Flag

Country Profile

Capital: Phnom Penh

Other Cities: Batdmbng, Siem Réap, Kmpng Cham, Kmpng Spoe, Kmpng Thum.

Local Time: UTC +7

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos.
Area: 181 035 sq. km. (69 900 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Central plain drained by the Tonle Sap (Great Lake) and Mekong and Bassac Rivers. Heavy forests away from the rivers and the lake, mountains in the southwest (Cardamom Mountains) and north (Dangrek Mountains) along the border with Cambodia.
Border countries: Laos, Thailand, Vietnam

Tropical monsoon with rainy season June-Oct. and dry season Nov.-May.


Type: Constitutional Monarchy
The Royal Cambodian Government (RCG), a constitutional monarchy formed on the basis of elections internationally recognized as free and fair, was established on 24 September 1993.
Head of State: His Majesty Samdech Preah Baromneath Norodom Sihamoni.

Nationality: Cambodian(s), Khmer
Population: 13 million.
GNI per capita PPP: $ 2 116 (year) Ethnic groups: Cambodian 90%; Chinese and Vietnamese 5% each; Burmese, small numbers of hill tribes like Chams and Khmer Loeu.
Religions: Thearavada Buddhism 95% (official); Islam, Christianity, animism, atheism. Languages: Khmer (official) spoken by more than 95% of the population; some French still spoken; English increasingly popular as a second language.
Education: Literacy: 35%.


Currency: Riel (KHR)

Natural resources: abundant natural bio-diversity, oil and gas, timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential.

Agriculture products: Rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, tapioca.

Industries: Tourism, textiles and garments, Beverage, Food Processing, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining.

Exports partners:
USA 58.4%, Germany 10.3%, UK 7.2% (2003)

Imports partners: Thailand 26.4%, Hong Kong 14.4%, Singapore 11.8%, China 11.3%, Vietnam 8.3%, Taiwan 8%, South Korea 4.1% (2003)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Cambodia

His Majesty Norodom Sihamoni

Royal Government of Cambodia

National Assembly of the Kingdom of Cambodia

Senate of Cambodia

Community Information Web Portal Cambodia

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of Cambodia to the United Nations

Royal Cambodian Embassy in the U.S.

Cambodian Embassies Abroad

Foreign Embassies in Cambodia

National Institute of Statistics

Map of Cambodia



Background:  Following a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge
forces captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and ordered the evacuation of all
cities and towns; over 1 million displaced people died from execution
or enforced hardships. A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge
into the countryside and touched off 13 years of fighting. UN-sponsored
elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy, as did the
rapid diminishment of the Khmer Rouge in the mid-1990s. A coalition
government, formed after national elections in 1998, brought renewed
political stability and the surrender of remaining Khmer Rouge forces.

Geography Cambodia

Location:  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between
Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates:  13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references:  Southeast Asia

Area:  total: 181,040 sq km land: 176,520 sq km water: 4,520 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries:  total: 2,572 km border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand
803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline:  443 km

Maritime claims:  contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:  tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season
(December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:  mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m highest point:
Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources:  timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use:  arable land: 21% permanent crops: 1% other: 78% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  2,700 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding;
occasional droughts

Environment - current issues:  illegal logging activities throughout the
country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border
with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in
particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries);
soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of the population does not have
access to potable water; toxic waste delivery from Taiwan sparked unrest
in Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville) in December 1998

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note:  a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong
River and Tonle Sap

People Cambodia

Population:  12,775,324 note: estimates for this country explicitly take
into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result
in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population
by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 40.7% (male 2,646,883; female 2,550,015)
15-64 years: 55.8% (male 3,373,692; female 3,758,736) 65 years and over:
3.5% (male 182,149; female 263,849) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  2.24% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  32.93 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  10.51 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69
male(s)/female total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  64 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   59.5 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  4.66 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  4.04% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  220,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  14,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Cambodian(s) adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups:  Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions:  Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%

Languages:  Khmer (official) 95%, French, English

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 35% male: 48% female: 22% (1990 est.)

Government Cambodia

Country name:   Kingdom of Cambodia conventional short form:  Kampuchea
former: Khmer Republic, Kampuchea Republic

Government type:  multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy
established in September 1993

Capital:  Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions:  20 provinces (khett, singular and plural)
and 4 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean Cheay,
Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum,
Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay,
Pailin*, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu* (Sihanoukville), Preah
Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng,

Independence:  9 November 1953 (from France)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 9 November (1953)

Constitution:  promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system:  primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes
from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)
period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences
of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing
influence of common law in recent years

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated
24 September 1993) head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 30
November 1998) and Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since NA) and TOL
LAH (since NA) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council;
prime minister appointed by the monarch after a vote of confidence by
the National Assembly

Legislative branch:  bicameral consists of the National Assembly (122
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the
Senate (61 seats; two members appointed by the monarch, two elected by
the National Assembly, and 57 elected by "functional constituencies";
members serve five-year terms) elections: National Assembly - last held
26 July 1998 (next to be held NA July 2003); Senate - last held 2 March
1999 (next to be held NA 2004) election results: National Assembly -
percent of vote by party - CPP 41%, FUNCINPEC 32%, SRP 14%, other 13%;
seats by party - CPP 64, FUNCINPEC 43, SRP 15; Senate - percent of vote
by party - NA%; seats by party - CPP 31, FUNCINPEC 21, SRP 7, other 2

Judicial branch:  Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in
the constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower
courts) exercises judicial authority

Political parties and leaders:  Buddhist Liberal Party or BLP [IENG
MOULY]; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party or CPP
[CHEA SIM]; Khmer Citizen Party or KCP [NGUON SOEUR]; National United
Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or
FUNCINPEC [Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP (formerly
Khmer Nation Party or KNP) [SAM RANGSI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  ACCT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:   [1] (202) 726-8381 telephone:
Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Kent M. WIEDEMANN embassy: 16-18 Mongkol
 Box P, APO AP 96546 telephone:
Flag description:  three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double
width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor
Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band

Economy Cambodia

Economy - overview:  Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997-98
due to the regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political
infighting. Foreign investment and tourism fell off. In 1999, the first
full year of peace in 30 years, progress was made on economic reforms and
growth resumed at 5%. GDP growth for 2000 had been projected to reach
5.5%, but the worst flooding in 70 years severely damaged agricultural
crops, and high oil prices hurt industrial production, and growth for the
year is estimated at only 4%. In 2001, severe floods damaged an estimated
15% of the area devoted to rice. Tourism now is Cambodia's fastest growing
industry, with arrivals up 34% in 2000 and up another 40% in 2001 before
the September 11 terrorist attacks in the US. The long-term development
of the economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge. The
population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the
poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of
basic infrastructure. Fear of renewed political instability and corruption
within the government discourage foreign investment and delay foreign
aid. On the brighter side, the government is addressing these issues
with assistance from bilateral and multilateral donors.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $18.7 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  5.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,500 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 50% industry: 15% services:
35% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  36% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 33.8% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  40.4 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  1.6% (2000 est.)

Labor force:  6 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 80% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:  2.8% (1999 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $363 million expenditures: $532 million, including
capital expenditures of $225 million (2000 est.)

Industries:  tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood
products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production:  132 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 62.12% hydro: 37.88%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  122.76 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  rice, rubber, corn, vegetables

Exports:  $1.05 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:  timber, garments, rubber, rice, fish

Exports - partners:  US 46.4%, Vietnam 26.1%, Germany 5.6%, Singapore
5.0%, UK 3.9% (2000)

Imports:  $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:  petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction
materials, machinery, motor vehicles

Imports - partners:  Singapore 22.5%, Thailand 19.8%, Hong Kong 15.6%,
China 4.9%, Vietnam 4.9% (2000)

Debt - external:  $829 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $548 million pledged in grants and concessional
loans for 2001 by international donors

Currency:  riel (KHR)

Currency code:  KHR

Exchange rates:  riels per US dollar - 3,895.0 (January 2002), 3,918.5
(2001), 3,840.8 (2000), 3,807.8 (1999), 3,744.4 (1998), 2,946.3 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Cambodia

Telephones - main lines in use:  21,800 (mid-1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  80,000 (2000)

Telephone system:  general assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular
service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; rural areas have little
telephone service domestic: NA international: adequate but expensive
landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh
and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik
(Indian Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 7, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1999)

Radios:  1.34 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  5 (1999)

Televisions:  94,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .kh

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (2000)

Internet users:  6,000 (2001)

Transportation Cambodia

Railways:  total: 603 km narrow gauge: 603 km 1.000-m gauge (2001 est.)

Highways:  total: 35,769 km paved: 4,165 km unpaved: 31,604 km (1997)

Waterways:  3,700 km note: navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m or
less; 282 km navigable to craft drawing as much as 1.8 m

Ports and harbors:  Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong,
Phnom Penh

Merchant marine:  total: 404 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,889,404
GRT/2,740,232 DWT ships by type: bulk 37, cargo 312, chemical tanker 2,
combination bulk 5, container 7, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 2,
multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum
tanker 15, refrigerated cargo 10, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger
2 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
convenience: Aruba 1, Belize 8, British Virgin Islands 1, Bulgaria 3,
China 21, Cyprus 15, Denmark 1, Egypt 7, Estonia 1, Georgia 1, Germany
1, Greece 12, Honduras 5, Hong Kong 12, Iceland 1, Indonesia 2, Iran 1,
Ireland 1, Italy 1, Japan 5, Jordan 1, Latvia 2, Lebanon 5, Liberia 5,
Lithuania 1, Malta 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 2, Panama 7, Romania 4,
Russia 67, Saint Kitts and Nevis 10, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4,
Singapore 15, South Korea 24, Syria 13, Thailand 1, Turkey 22, Ukraine
13, United Arab Emirates 2, United Kingdom 1, United States 5, Vietnam 2,
Virgin Islands (UK) 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:  20 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to
2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 15 under 914 m: 1 (2001) 1,524
to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 13

Heliports:  2 (2001)

Military Cambodia

Military branches:  Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF): Army, Navy,
Air Force

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,990,790 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,673,713
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 162,643
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $112 million (FY01 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  3% (FY01 est.)

Transnational Issues Cambodia

Disputes - international:  demarcation of boundaries with Cambodia,
Thailand, and Vietnam is nearing completion; accuses Thailand of moving
or destroying boundary markers and encroachment, of not respecting
its claims, and of sealing off access to the Preah Vihear temple ruin
awarded to Cambodia by the ICJ in 1962; accuses Vietnam of territorial
encroachments and initiating armed border incidents in seven provinces,
despite substantial demarcation efforts to date; disputes several offshore
islands with Vietnam, which prevents delimitation of a maritime boundary

Illicit drugs:  possible money laundering; narcotics-related corruption
reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police;
possible small-scale opium, heroin, and amphetamine production; large
producer of cannabis for the international market

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

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