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Bosnia and Herzegovina
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Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina


Country Profile

Capital City: Sarajevo (est. pop 387,876)
Official Site of the Canton Sarajevo.

Other Cities: Banja Luka (220 000); Mostar (210 000); Tuzla (120 000); Bihac (50 000).

Local Time: UTC+1h

Geography:
Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia.
Area: 51,233 sq. km
Terrain: Mountains in the central and southern regions, plains along the Sava River in the north.
Climate: Hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long severe winters; mild, rainy winters in the southeast.

Government:
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992).
Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution.

People:
Nationalities: Bosniak (Muslim), Bosnian Croat, Bosnian Serb.
Population: 4 million.
GNI per capita PPP: $ 5 827 (year)
Ethnic groups: Bosniak 48%, Serb 34%, Croat 15%, other 0.5% (2000)
note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam.
Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%.
Languages: Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian (formerly "Serbo-Croatian"). Adult literacy rate: male 94%, female 78%

Business

Currency: Convertible Marka (KM; now pegged to Euro; Iso-Code: BAM)

Natural resources: Deposits of coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead, zinc, hydropower.

Agriculture products
: Wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock.

Industries: Steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (2001)

Exports partners:
Italy 22.9%, Croatia 22.1%, Germany 20.3%, Austria 7.5%, Slovenia 6.9%, Hungary 4.9% (2004)

Imports partners: Croatia 26.4%, Germany 14.9%, Slovenia 13.4%, Italy 12%, Austria 6.9%, Hungary 6.4% (2004)


Internet Links

Official Sites of Bosnia and Herzegovina
State Institutions of BiH:


Predsjednistvo BiH

Ministarstvo Vanjskih Poslova

Embassy of Bosnia and Herzegovina

OSCE Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina

Statistics
Federalni zavod za statistiku

Weather
Bosna i Hercegovina METEOBIH FederalnÝ MeteoroloskÝ Zavod

Entity Institutions:

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Vlada Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine

Parlament Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine

Serbian Republic
Vlada Republike Srpske

President of the Republic of Srpska

National Assembly of Srpska

Maps
Political Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Another Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Central Balkan Region

Introduction

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Background:  Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty
in October 1991, was followed by a declaration of independence from
the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted
by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia
and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning
the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a
"greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number
of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a
joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November
1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties signed a peace agreement
that brought to a halt the three years of interethnic civil strife (the
final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton
Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and
created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national
government was charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal
policy.  Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two
entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation
and RS governments were charged with overseeing internal functions. In
1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000
troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of
the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization
Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR remains
in place at the January 2002 level of approximately 18,000 troops,
though further reductions may take place later in the year.

Geography Bosnia and Herzegovina

Location:  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates:  44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 51,129 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 51,129 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:  total: 1,459 km border countries: Croatia 932 km,
Yugoslavia 527 km

Coastline:  20 km

Maritime claims:  NA

Climate:  hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have
short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters
along coast

Terrain:  mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point:
Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources:  coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper,
chromium, lead, zinc, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 10% permanent crops: 3% other: 87% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  20 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:  air pollution from metallurgical plants;
sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and
destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Air Pollution, Climate
Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not
ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders,
the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of
the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49%
of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia
and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Montenegro), and traditionally
has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic
Serb majority in the east

People Bosnia and Herzegovina

Population:  3,964,388 note: all data dealing with population are subject
to considerable error because of the dislocations caused by military
action and ethnic cleansing (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 19.8% (male 403,391; female 382,037) 15-64
years: 70.6% (male 1,432,559; female 1,366,224) 65 years and over: 9.6%
(male 161,659; female 218,518) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.76% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  12.76 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  2.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.74 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  23.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   74.93 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.71 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.04% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Bosnian(s) adjective: Bosnian

Ethnic groups:  Serb 31%, Bosniak 44%, Croat 17%, Yugoslav 5.5%, other
2.5% (1991) note:  with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Religions:  Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%,
other 10%

Languages:  Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian

Literacy:  definition: NA total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Bosnia and Herzegovina

Country name:  conventional long form: none conventional short form:
Bosnia and Herzegovina local long form: none local short form: Bosna
i Hercegovina

Government type:  emerging federal democratic republic

Capital:  Sarajevo

Administrative divisions:  there are two first-order administrative
divisions and one internationally supervised district* - Brcko district
(Brcko Distrikt)*, the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
(Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika
Srpska; note - Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an
administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina;
it is not part of either Republika Srpska or the Federation of Bosnia
and Herzegovina; the district remains under international supervision

Independence:  1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence
was completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)

National holiday:  National Day, 25 November (1943)

Constitution:  the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included
a new constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has
its own constitution

Legal system:  based on civil law system

Suffrage:  16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Beriz BELKIC
(chairman since 14 February 2002, presidency member since 30 March 2001 -
Bosniak); other members of the three-member rotating (every eight months)
presidency:  30 March 2001 - Croat) elections: the three members of the
presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote
for a four-year term; the member with the most votes becomes the chairman
unless he or she was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election,
but the chairmanship rotates every eight months; election last held 12-13
September 1998 (next to be held NA October 2002); the chairman of the
Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the
National House of Representatives head of government: Chairman of the
Council of Ministers Dragan MIKEREVIC (since 15 March 2002), position
rotates every eight months cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by
the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives
election results: percent of vote - Zivko RADISIC with 52% of the Serb
vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the first eight
months; Ante JELAVIC with 52% of the Croat vote followed RADISIC in the
rotation; Alija IZETBEGOVIC with 87% of the Bosniak vote won the highest
number of votes in the election but was ineligible to serve a second
term until RADISIC and JELAVIC had each served a first term as Chairman
of the Presidency; IZETBEGOVIC retired from the presidency 14 October
2000 and was replaced first temporarily by Halid GENJAC and subsequently
by Beriz BELKIC; Ante JELAVIC was replaced by Jozo KRIZANOVIC in March
2001 when the High Representative barred him from public office note:
(since 1 January 2002); Vice President Karlo FILIPOVIC (since 1 January
2002); note - president and vice president rotate every year; President
of the Republika Srpska: Mirko SAROVIC (since 11 November 2000); Vice
President of the Republika Srpska: Dragan CAVIZ (since NA)

Legislative branch:  bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina
consists of the National House of Representatives or Predstavnicki
Dom (42 seats - 14 Serb, 14 Croat, and 14 Bosniak; members elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Peoples or Dom
Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the
Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives and the Republika
Srpska's National Assembly to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's
election law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order
administrative division entity legislatures; officials elected in 2000
and previously were elected to two-year terms on the presumption that a
permanent law would be in place before 2002 election results: National
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - SDP
22%, SDA 20%, SDS 15%, HDZ-BiH 12%, SBH 12%, PDP 5%, NHI 2%, BPS 2%,
DPS 2%, SNS 2% SNSD-DSP 2%, DNZ 2%, SPRS 2%; seats by party/coalition
- SDP 9, SDA 8, SDS 6, HDZ-BiH 5, SBH 5, PDP 2, NHI 1, BPS 1, DPS 1,
SNS 1, SNSD-DSP 1, DNZ 1, SPRS 1; House of Peoples - percent of vote by
party/coalition - NA%; seats by party/coalition - NA elections: National
House of Representatives - elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to
be held in NA October 2002); House of Peoples - last constituted after the
11 November 2000 elections (next to be constituted in the fall of 2002)
note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that
consists of a House of Representatives (140 seats; members elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 11 November
2000 (next to be held NA October 2002); percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party/coalition - SDA 38, SDP 37, HDZ-BiH 25, SBH 21, DNZ 3,
NHI 2, BPS 2, DPS 2, BOSS 2, GDS 1, RP 1, HSS 1, LDS 1, Pensioners'
Party of FBiH 1, SNSD-DSP 1, HKDU 1, HSP 1; and a House of Peoples
(74 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30 Croat, and 14 others); last constituted
November 2000; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last
held 11 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2002); percent of
vote by party - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDS 31, PDP 11, SNSD
11, SDA 6, DSP 4, SDP 4, SPRS 4, SBH 4, DNS 3, SNS 2, NHI 1, DSRS 1,
Pensioners' Party 1; Bosnia's election law specifies four-year terms for
the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures;
officials elected in 2000 and prior were elected to two-year terms on
the presumption that a permanent law would be in place before 2002

Judicial branch:  BiH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members:
four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of
Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly,
and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court
of Human Rights) note:  cases related to state-level law and appellate
jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities; the entities each have
a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are
10 cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts;
the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts

Political parties and leaders:  Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC];
Bosnian Patriotic Party or BPS [Sefer HALILOVIC]; Civic Democratic
Party of BiH or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union
or HKDU BiH [Ante PASALIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of BiH or HDZ-BiH
[Ante JELAVIC; note - not recognized by the international community];
Croatian Party of Rights of BiH or HSP-BiH [Zdravko HRSTIC]; Croatian
Peasants Party of BiH or HSS-BiH [Ilija SIMIC]; Democratic National
Alliance or DNS [Dragan KOSTIC]; Democratic Party of Pensioners or DPS
[Alojz KNEZOVIC]; Democratic Party of RS or DSRS [Dragomir DUMIC];
Democratic Peoples Union or DNZ [Fikret ABDIC]; Democratic Socialist
Party or DSP [Nebojsa RADMANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS
[Rasim KADIC]; New Croatian Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party
for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBH [Safet HALILOVIC]; Party of Democratic
Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP
[Mladen IVANIC]; Party of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad
DODIK]; Pensioners' Party of FBiH [Husein VOJNIKOVIC]; Pensioners' Party
of SR [Stojan BOGOSAVAC]; People's Party-Working for Progress or NS-RZB
[Mladen IVANKOVIC]; Republican Party of BiH or RP [Stjepan KLJUIC];
Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Dragan KALINIC]; Serb National Alliance
(Serb People's Alliance) or SNS [Branislav LULIC]; Social Democratic
Party of BIH or SDP-BiH [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist Party of Republika
Srpska or SPRS [Zivko RADISIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  BIS, CE (guest), CEI, EBRD,
ECE, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OAS (observer),
OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Igor
DAVIDOVIC chancery: 2109 E Street NW,
 [1] (202) 337-1500 consulate(s) general:
Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Clifford J. BOND embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo mailing address:
use street address telephone: [387] (33) 445-700 FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag description:  a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with
a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag;
the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed
white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of
the triangle

Government - note:  The Dayton Agreement, signed in Paris on 14 December
1995, retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's exterior border and created a
joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government -
based on proportional representation similar to that which existed in the
former socialist regime - is charged with conducting foreign, economic,
and fiscal policy. The Dayton Agreement also recognized a second tier of
government, comprised of two entities - a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation
of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska (RS)
- each presiding over roughly one-half the territory. The Federation
and RS governments are charged with overseeing internal functions. The
Bosniak/Croat Federation is further divided into 10 cantons. The Dayton
Agreement established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to
oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. About
250 international and 450 local staff members are employed by the OHR.

Economy Bosnia and Herzegovina

Economy - overview:  Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old
Yugoslav federation.  Although agriculture is almost all in private
hands, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally
is a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed,
one reflection of the socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia. TITO
had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with
the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia's defense
plants. The bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production
to plummet by 80% from 1990 to 1995, unemployment to soar, and human
misery to multiply. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered
in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth
slowed in 2000 and 2001. GDP remains far below the 1990 level. Economic
data are of limited use because, although both entities issue figures,
national-level statistics are limited. Moreover, official data do not
capture the large share of activity that occurs on the black market. The
marka - the national currency introduced in 1998 - is now pegged to the
euro, and the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina has dramatically
increased its reserve holdings. Implementation of privatization, however,
has been slow, and local entities only reluctantly support national-level
institutions. Banking reform accelerated in 2001 as all the communist-era
payments bureaus were shut down. The country receives substantial amounts
of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the international
community but will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $7 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  6% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 16% industry: 28% services:
56% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  1.026 million

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:  40% (2001 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $1.9 billion expenditures: $2.2 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries:  steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite,
vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank
and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate:  9% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  2.615 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 37.67% hydro: 62.33%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  2.577 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  205 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  350 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Exports:  $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  miscellaneous manufactures, crude materials

Exports - partners:  Croatia, Switzerland, Italy, Germany

Imports:  $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and transport equipment, industrial
products, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:  Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, Italy

Debt - external:  $2.8 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  $650 million (2001 est.)

Currency:  marka (BAM)

Currency code:  BAM

Exchange rates:  marka per US dollar - 2.161 (October 2001), 2.124
(2000), 1.837 (1999), 1.760 (1998), 1.734 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Bosnia and Herzegovina

Telephones - main lines in use:  303,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  9,000 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: telephone and telegraph network
needs modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average
as contrasted with
 NA international:
Radio broadcast stations:  AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:  940,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions:  NA

Internet country code:  .ba

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  3 (2000)

Internet users:  3,500 (2000)

Transportation Bosnia and Herzegovina

Railways:  total: 1,021 km (795 km electrified; operating as diesel or
steam until grids are repaired) standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge;
note - many segments still need repair and/or reconstruction because of
war damage (2000 est.)

Highways:  total: 21,846 km paved: 14,020 km note: road system is in
need of maintenance and repair (2001) unpaved: 7,826 km

Waterways:  NA km; large sections of the Sava blocked by downed bridges,
silt, and debris

Pipelines:  crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992)

Ports and harbors:  Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac,
and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje

Merchant marine:  none (2002 est.)

Airports:  27 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 8 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to
2,437 m: 1 under 914 m: 3 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 19 under 914 m: 11 (2001)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 7

Heliports:  5 (2001)

Military Bosnia and Herzegovina

Military branches:  VF Army (the air and air defense forces are
subordinate commands within the Army), VRS Army (the air and air defense
forces are subordinate commands within the Army)

Military manpower - military age:  19 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 1,131,537 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 898,117
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 29,757
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  NA%

Transnational Issues Bosnia and Herzegovina

Disputes - international:  Bosnia and Herzegovina and Yugoslavia have
delimited about half of their boundary, but several segments, particularly
along the meandering Drina River, remain in dispute; discussions continue
with Croatia on the disputed boundary in the Una River near Kostajnica,
Hrvatska Dubica, and Zeljava; protests Croatian claim to the tip of the
Klek Peninsula and several islands near Neum

Illicit drugs:  minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking
routes to Western Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

News
Federalna Novinska Agencija - FENA

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Bosnia HomePage at Caltech

Information on the History of Bosnia-Herzegovina

A Brief History Of Bosnia-Herzegovina

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United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Bosnia and Herzegovina

 

 

 

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