World Online Education - World Portal : International Online Education Portal
Worldwide Online Education
International Online Education Portal
Learn About the World's Online Business, Education, Economy, Politics, Culture, Religion, Media and More









Online Business Education. Economy. Politics. Culture. Religion. Media

Flag of Bolivia

Country Profile

Capital Cities: La Paz (administrative, seat of the government; pop. 800 000)
Sucre (legislative/judiciary; pop. 300 000)

Other Cities:
Santa Cruz (1 500 000), Cochabamba (587 000), El Alto (860 000).

Local Time:  UTC -4h

Area: 1.1 million sq. km. (425 000 sq. mi.).
: High plateau (altiplano), temperate and semitropical valleys, and the tropical lowlands.

Border countries
: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru

Climate: Varies with altitude--from humid and tropical to semiarid and cold.


Type: Republic.
Independence: 6 August 1825.
Constitution: 1967; revised 1994.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Bolivian(s).
Population: 9 million.
GNI per capita PPP: $ 3 049 (year)
Ethnic Groups: Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, white 15%.
Religions: Predominantly Roman Catholic; minority Protestant.
Languages: Spanish (official); Quechua, Aymara, Guarani.
Literacy: 85.5%.


Currency: Boliviano (BOB)

Natural resources: Tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower.

Agriculture products: Soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber.

Industries: Mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing

Exports partners:
Brazil 33.9%, USA 12.7%, Colombia 11.8%, Venezuela 11.6%, Peru 5.1%, Japan 4.2% (2004)

Imports partners: Brazil 25.3%, Argentina 17%, USA 13.1%, Chile 9.2%, Peru 7.2% (2004)

Internet Links

Official Sites of Bolivia
Presidencia de la República de Bolivia

Congreso Nacional

BOLIVIA portal del gobierno boliviano

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto de Bolivia

Diplomatic Missions
Misión Permanente de Bolivia ante las Naciones Unidas

Embajada de Bolivia

Embajada de Bolivia en la República Argentina

INE - Instituto Nacional de Estadística

Map of Bolivia

Map of South America



Background:  Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR,
broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has
consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups. Comparatively
democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s, but leaders have
faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and
drug production. Current goals include attracting foreign investment,
strengthening the educational system, continuing the privatization
program, and waging an anticorruption campaign.

Geography Bolivia

Location:  Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates:  17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references:  South America

Area:  total: 1,098,580 sq km water: 14,190 sq km land: 1,084,390 sq km

Area - comparative:  slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:  total: 6,743 km border countries: Argentina 832 km,
Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain:  rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano),
hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m highest point:
Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

Natural resources:  tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony,
silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower

Land use:  arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% other: 98% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  1,280 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment - current issues:  the clearing of land for agricultural
purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing
to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation
methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of
biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking
and irrigation

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed,
but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note:  landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's
highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

People Bolivia

Population:  8,445,134 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 37.8% (male 1,626,596; female 1,565,124)
15-64 years: 57.7% (male 2,383,852; female 2,491,823) 65 years and over:
4.5% (male 169,583; female 208,156) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.69% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  26.41 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  8.05 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -1.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.82 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  57.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   67.1 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  3.37 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  0.1% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  4,200 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  380 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Bolivian(s) adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups:  Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry)
30%, Aymara 25%, white 15%

Religions:  Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages:  Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 83.1% male: 90.5% female: 76% (1995 est.)

Government Bolivia

Country name:   Republic of Bolivia conventional short form: Government
type:  republic

Capital:  La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat
of judiciary)

Administrative divisions:  9 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando,
Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence:  6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday:  Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution:  2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system:  based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years
of age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA
Ramirez (since 7 August 2001); Vice President NA; note - the president is
both the chief of state and head of government note: Vice President Jorge
Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez assumed the presidency upon the resignation in
August 2001 of former President Hugo BANZER Suarez for health reasons head
of government:  President NA; note - the president is both the chief of
state and head of government note: Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA
Ramirez assumed the presidency upon the resignation in August 2001
of former President Hugo BANZER Suarez for health reasons elections:
president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular
vote for five-year terms; election last held 1 June 1997 (next to be
held 30 June 2002) election results:  (ADN) 22%; Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR)
17%, Juan Carlos DURAN (MNR) 18%, Ivo KULJIS (UCS) 16%, Remedios LOZA
(CONDEPA) 17%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote;
Hugo BANZER Suarez won a congressional runoff election on 5 August
1997 after forming a "megacoalition" with MIR, UCS, CONDEPA, NFR, and
former Christian Democratic Party (PDC); resigned 7 August 2001 and
was succeeded by Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez who is
serving out BANZER's term; QUIROGA will step down in August 2002 when the
new president is chosen by Congress, a result of no candidate winning
a majority in the 30 June 2002 election cabinet: Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of Chamber of
Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are directly elected
by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or
Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are directly elected by popular
vote to serve five-year terms; note - some members are drawn from party
lists, thus not directly elected) election results: Chamber of Senators -
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ADN 11, MIR 7, MNR 4,
CONDEPA 3, UCS 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party - MNR 26, MIR 24, ADN 20, UCS 20, CONDEPA 19, NFR 11, MBL
5, IU 4, FSB 1 elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies -
last held 1 June 1997 (next to be held NA June 2002)

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed
for 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one in each
department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)

Political parties and leaders:  Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB
[Otto RICHTER]; Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ];
Conscience of the Fatherland or CONDEPA [Remedios LOZA Alvarado]; Free
Bolivia Movement or MBL [Franz BARRIOS]; Movement of the Revolutionary
Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ Zamora]; Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN
[Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Nationalist Revolutionary Movement or
MNR [Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]; New Republican Force or NFR [Manfred
REYES-VILLA]; United Left or IU [Marcos DOMIC] note: the ADN, MIR,
and UCS comprise the ruling coalition

Political pressure groups and leaders:  Cocalero Groups; indigenous
organizations; labor unions; Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of
Bolivia or CSUTCB [Felipe QUISPE]

International organization participation:  CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB,
IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate),

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Marlene FERNANDEZ del Granado FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712 consulate(s)
general: Miami, New York, and San Francisco telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410
chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
V. Manuel ROCHA embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz mailing
address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032 telephone: [591] 243-3812
FAX: [591] (2) 433854

Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow,
and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to
the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered
in the yellow band

Economy Bolivia

Economy - overview:  Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least
developed Latin American countries, has made considerable progress
toward the development of a market-oriented economy. Successes under
President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-97) included the signing of a free
trade agreement with Mexico and becoming an associate member of the
Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur), as well as the privatization of
the state airline, telephone company, railroad, electric power company,
and oil company. Growth slowed in 1999, in part due to tight government
budget policies, which limited needed appropriations for anti-poverty
programs, and the fallout from the Asian financial crisis. In 2000, major
civil disturbances in April, and again in September and October, held
down overall growth to 2.5%. Bolivia's GDP failed to grow in 2001 due to
the global slowdown and laggard domestic activity. Growth is expected to
pick up in 2002, but the fiscal deficit and debt burden will remain high.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $21.4 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  0% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $2,600 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 14% industry: 31% services:
55% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  70% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 0.5%
highest 10%: 45.7% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  58.9 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  2% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  2.5 million

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:  7.6% (2000) note: widespread underemployment

Budget:  revenues: $4 billion expenditures: $4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)

Industries:  mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco,
handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate:  3.9% (1998)

Electricity - production:  3.87 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 48.37% hydro: 50.13%
other: 1.5% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  3.605 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  5 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  11 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane,
rice, potatoes; timber

Exports:  $1.2 billion (2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  soybeans, natural gas, zinc, gold, wood

Exports - partners:  US 32%, Colombia 18%, UK 15%, Brazil 15%, Peru 6%

Imports:  $1.5 billion (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:  capital goods, raw materials and
semi-manufactures, chemicals, petroleum, food

Imports - partners:  US 24%, Argentina 17%, Brazil 15%, Chile 9%, Peru 5

Debt - external:  $5.8 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:  $588 million (1997)

Currency:  boliviano (BOB)

Currency code:  BOB

Exchange rates:  bolivianos per US dollar - 6.8613 (January 2002), 6.6069
(2001), 6.1835 (2000), 5.8124 (1999), 5.5101 (1998), 5.2543 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Bolivia

Telephones - main lines in use:  327,600 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  116,000 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic
difficulties; most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities;
mobile cellular telephone use expanding rapidly domestic: primary trunk
system, which is being expanded, employs digital microwave radio relay;
some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; mobile cellular systems
are being expanded international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)

Radios:  5.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  48 (1997)

Televisions:  900,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .bo

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  9 (2000)

Internet users:  78,000 (2000)

Transportation Bolivia

Railways:  total: 3,691 km narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km
0.760-m gauge (13 km electrified) (1995 est.)

Highways:   2,500 km (including 30 km of expressways) unpaved: Waterways:
10,000 km (commercially navigable)

Pipelines:  crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas
1,495 km

Ports and harbors:  Puerto Aguirre (on the Paraguay/Parana waterway,
at the Bolivia/Brazil border); also, Bolivia has free port privileges
in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine:  total: 36 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 196,399
GRT/320,137 DWT ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 15, chemical tanker 2,
container 1, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 2 note: includes some
foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of Belize 2, China 2,
Cuba 1, Cyprus 1, Egypt 1, Honduras 1, Latvia 2, Liberia 2, Panama 1,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Saudi Arabia 1, Singapore 1, South
Korea 3, Switzerland 1, Ukraine 1, United Arab Emirates 5, United States 1
(2002 est.)

Airports:  1,109 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 13 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047
m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:   4 1,524 to 2,437 m: Military Bolivia

Military branches:  Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval,
includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National Police
Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)

Military manpower - military age:  19 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,062,321 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,343,755
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 90,120
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $147 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  1.8% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Bolivia

Disputes - international:  continues to demand a sovereign corridor to
the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama region was lost to Chile in 1884

Illicit drugs:  world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia
and Peru) with an estimated 19,900 hectares under cultivation in July
2001, stable from July 2000 levels; intermediate coca products and cocaine
exported to or through Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to the US
and other international drug markets; eradication and alternative crop
programs under the QUIROGA administration has kept pace with farmers'
attempts to increase cultivation after significant reductions in 1998
and 1999

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

Correo del Sur

El D

El Diario

El Mundo

El Nuevo Dia

Diario el Potosí

Los Tiempos

La Razon

Arts & Culture
Museo de la Coca

Museo Nacional de Arqueologia

Museo Nacional de Arte

International Association of Andean Musicians

Business & Economy
Banco Central de Bolivia

Bolsa Boliviana de Valores

Bolivia Business On Line


Lloyd Aereo Boliviano S.A.- L.A.B.

Turismo Bolivia

Andean Summits

Bolivia Business


Bolivia Web - Travel

La Paz


Universidad Andina Simón Bolivar

Universidad Catílica Boliviana

Asociación de Organizaciones de Productores Ecológicos de Bolivia AOPEB

Eco Bolivia Foundation

Fundación Amigos de la Naturaleza/ Friends of Nature Foundation

World History Archives: History of Bolivia

Wikipedia: Bolivia's History

World-Wide Web Virtual Library: History: Bolivia


Bolivia Web

Newsgroup of Bolivia




Education Resources

Natural Stone Veneer
Stone Directory

Las Vegas Graphics & Web Design
Las Vegas Graphic & Web Design
Graphic Design & Web Design in Las Vegas

Dentures. Complete Dentures. Partial Dentures.
 Complete Dentures
 Partial Dentures

Leadership Courses & Management Courses in Las Vegas USA
Management Training Courses in Las Vegas USA
Leadership Training & Management Courses in Las Vegas

Management  Best Practices
Management Best Practices

Management Consulting Courses
Management Consulting Courses

Management Training Courses
Management Training Courses

Business School Online
Online Business Schools

Open Courseware
Free Open Courses

Online Business Courses
Business Schools Online

Business Management Courses
Business Management Courses

CEO Magazine
CEO Magazine

CEO Library
CEO Library

CEO Club
Executive Networking

CEO Books
CEO Books

MBA Review
Review of MBA Programs

Best MBA
Ranking of World's Best MBA Programs

MBA distance Learning
Online MBA

Top Ranking MBA
Ranking of Top MBA Programs

Online Executive MBA
Online Executive MBA Programs

Accelerated MBA
Accelerated MBA Programs

Las Vegas Web Design
Las Vegas Web Design