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Azerbaijan Flag

Capital City
: Baku

Border countries: Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey

Internet Sites

Official Sites of Azerbaijan

President of the Republic of Azerbaijan

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

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Caucasus and Central Asia Map



Background:  Azerbaijan - a nation of Turkic Muslims - has been
an independent republic since the collapse of the Soviet Union in
1991. Despite a 1`994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its
conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave
(largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost almost 20% of its
territory and must support some 750,000 refugees and internally displaced
persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous and the
promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum
resources remains largely unfulfilled.

Geography Azerbaijan

Location:  Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran
and Russia

Geographic coordinates:  40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references:  Asia

Area:  total: 86,600 sq km note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan
Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy
was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991 water:
Area - comparative:  slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:  total: 2,013 km border countries: Armenia (with
Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave)
221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran
(with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea
(800 km, est.)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain:  large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it
below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag
Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi
(Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m highest point:
Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources:  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals,

Land use:  arable land: 19% permanent crops: 3% other: 78% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  14,550 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:  droughts

Environment - current issues:  local scientists consider the Abseron
Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the
Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world
because of severe air, water, and soil pollution; soil pollution results
from the use of DDT as a pesticide and also from toxic defoliants used
in the production of cotton

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan
exclave are landlocked

People Azerbaijan

Population:  7,798,497 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 28.3% (male 1,122,340; female 1,082,355)
15-64 years: 64.3% (male 2,441,830; female 2,577,109) 65 years and over:
7.4% (male 228,735; female 346,128) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  0.38% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  18.84 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  9.61 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  -5.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
0.66 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  82.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   67.53 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  2.29 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  less than 500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality:  noun: Azerbaijani(s) adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups:  Azeri 90%, Dagestani 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2%,
other 2.3% (1998 est.)  note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist
Nagorno-Karabakh region

Religions:  Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%,
other 1.8% (1995 est.)  note: religious affiliation is still nominal in
Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages:  Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6%
(1995 est.)

Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write total
population: 97% male: 99% female: 96% (1989 est.)

Government Azerbaijan

Country name:   Republic of Azerbaijan conventional short form:  Republic
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi

Government type:  republic

Capital:  Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions:  59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11
cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar
respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu,
Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*, Astara Rayonu, Baki
Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu,
Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli
Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu,
Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu,
Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik
Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan
Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu,
Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu,
Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*,
Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu,
Sumqayit Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu,
Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu,
Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax
Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

Independence:  30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:  Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaidzhan,
28 May (1918)

Constitution:  adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system:  based on civil law system

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18
June 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 26
November 1996) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
and confirmed by the National Assembly elections: president elected by
popular vote to a five-year term; election last held 11 October 1998
(next to be held NA October 2003); prime minister and first deputy
prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National
Assembly election results:  Etibar MAMEDOV 11.8%, Nizami SULEYMANOV 8.2%

Legislative branch:  unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis
(125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 4 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
NAP and allies 108, APF 6, CSP 3, PNIA 2, Musavat Party 2, CPA 2, APF
"traditionalist" 1, Compatriot Party 1

Judicial branch:  Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:  Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF
[Ali KARIMLI, leader of "reform faction"; Mirmahmud FATTAYEV, leader
of "traditionalist" faction]; Civic Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir
RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of
Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI];
Democratic Party for Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman];
Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala
Shvkat HACIYEVA]; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party
or NAP [Heydar ALIYEV, chairman]; Party for National Independence of
Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar MAMMADOV, chairman]; Social Democratic Party
of Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardust ALIZADE and Araz ALIZADE] note: Political
pressure groups and leaders:  Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed
Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement

International organization participation:  AsDB, BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent),
ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz
Mir Jalal PASHAYEV chancery: 2741
 [1] (202) 337-5911 telephone:
Diplomatic representation from the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
Ross WILSON embassy: 83 Azadliq Avenue, Baku 370007 mailing address:
American Embassy Baku, Department of State,
 [9] (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37 FAX:
Flag description:  three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and
green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

Economy Azerbaijan

Economy - overview:  Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's
oil production declined through 1997 but has registered an increase
every year since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements
(PSAs) with foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to
oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to spur future
industrial development.  Oil production under the first of these PSAs,
with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November
1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet
republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy,
but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects.
Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and
old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. An obstacle
to economic progress, including stepped up foreign investment in the
non-energy sector, is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the
Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet
republics is declining in importance while trade is building with Turkey
and the nations of Europe.  Long-term prospects will depend on world oil
prices, the location of new pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's
ability to manage its oil wealth.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $24.3 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  9.9% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $3,100 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 22% industry: 33% services:
45% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:  64% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  36 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  1.6% (2001 est.)

Labor force:  2.9 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture and forestry 32%, industry 15%,
services 53% (1997)

Unemployment rate:  20% (official rate is 1.3% for 2001) (1999 est.)

Budget:  revenues: $888 million expenditures: $978 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:  petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield
equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:  5.1% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:  17.6 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: 91.37% hydro: 8.63%
other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:  16.7 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports:  900 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports:  1.25 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:  cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables,
tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Exports:  $2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:  oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:  Italy 43.7%, France 11.8%, Israel 7.7%, Turkey 6.0%,
France 5.6% (2000)

Imports:  $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities:  machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals,

Imports - partners:  Russia 21.3%, Turkey 11%, US 8.9%, Iran 5.8%,
Germany 5.8% (2000)

Debt - external:  $1.5 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:  ODA, $113 million (1996)

Currency:  Azerbaijani manat (AZM)

Currency code:  AZM

Exchange rates:  Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,804 (11 February
2002), 4,656.58 (2001), 4,474.15 (2000), 4,120.17 (1999), 3,869 (1998),
3,985.38 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Azerbaijan

Telephones - main lines in use:  663,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  40,000 (1997)

Telephone system:  general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable
expansion and modernization; teledensity of 8.6 main lines per 100
persons is very low domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku
and other industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public
telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in
its exclave of Naxcivan international: the old Soviet system of cable
and microwave is still serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey
enables Baku to reach about 200 additional countries, some of which are
directly connected to Baku by satellite providers other than Turkey (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:  175,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  2 (1997)

Televisions:  170,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .az

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  2 (2000)

Internet users:  12,000 (2001)

Transportation Azerbaijan

Railways:  total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not
include industrial lines broad gauge: 2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km
electrified) (1993 est.)

Highways:  total: 36,700 km paved: 31,800 km (includes some all-weather
gravel-surfaced roads) unpaved: 4,900 km (these roads are made of
unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Waterways:  none

Pipelines:  crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas
1,240 km

Ports and harbors:  Baku (Baki)

Merchant marine:  total: 54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 246,051
GRT/306,756 DWT ships by type: cargo 12, petroleum tanker 40, roll
on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)

Airports:  52 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:  total: 9 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to
2,437 m: 4 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:  total: 43 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 914 to
1,523 m: 8 under 914 m: 28 (2001)

Military Azerbaijan

Military branches:  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces

Military manpower - military age:  18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:  males age 15-49: 2,131,331 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:  males age 15-49: 1,706,325
(2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:  males: 77,099
(2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  $121 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  2.6% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Azerbaijan

Disputes - international:  Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists
in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies almost one-fifth of
Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
continues to mediate dispute; Azerbaijan signed bilateral agreements
with Russia delimiting the Caspian seabed, but littoral states are far
from multilateral agreement on dividing the waters and seabed regimes
- Iran insists on division of Caspian Sea into five equal sectors
while Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan have generally
agreed upon equidistant seabed boundaries; Iran threatens to conduct oil
exploration in Azerbaijani-claimed waters, while interdicting Azerbaijani
activities; Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan await ICJ decision to resolve
sovereignty dispute over oilfields in the Caspian Sea

Illicit drugs:  limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy,
mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program;
transshipment point for opiates via Iran, Central Asia, and Russia to
Western Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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