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Flag of Andorra

Country Profile

Capital: Andorra la Vella

Local Time: UTC+1


Location: Southwestern Europe, the massif of the Pyrenees between France and Spain
North: 42° 39' 15''; South: 42° 25' 38''; West: 1° 24' 34''; East: 1° 47' 19''
Area: 468 sq. km.

Border countries:
France, Spain

Climate: Temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Parliamentary democracy that retains as its heads of state two Co-princes.
Constitution: Ratified in March 1993
Independence: 1278

Nationality: Noun and adjective: Andorran(s)
Population: 65,844 inhabitants
Ethnic groups: Catalan, Spanish, French, Portuguese
Religion: Roman Catholic
Official language: Catalan (official), Spanish and French
Literacy: 99,9%.


Currency: Euro (EUR)



Background:  Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra has
achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist
industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to the
thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.

Geography Andorra

Location:  Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates:  42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references:  Europe

Area:  total: 468 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 468 sq km

Area - comparative:  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:  total: 120.3 km border countries: France 56.6 km,
Spain 63.7 km

Coastline:  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:  none (landlocked)

Climate:  temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain:  rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes:  lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m highest point: Coma
Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources:  hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use:  arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% other: 98% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:  NA sq km

Natural hazards:  avalanches

Environment - current issues:  deforestation; overgrazing of mountain
meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment
and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:  party to: Hazardous Wastes
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:  landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads
in the Pyrenees

People Andorra

Population:  68,403 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:  0-14 years: 15.2% (male 5,456; female 4,951) 15-64 years:
71.9% (male 25,855; female 23,311) 65 years and over: 12.9% (male 4,425;
female 4,405) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:  1.11% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:  9.97 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:  5.57 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:  6.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.1
male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female 65 years and over:
1 male(s)/female total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:  4.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:   86.58 years (2002 est.)  male: Total fertility
rate:  1.26 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  NA

Nationality:  noun: Andorran(s) adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups:  Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%,
other 6% (1998)

Religions:  Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages:  Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy:  definition: NA total population: 100% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Andorra

Country name:   Principality of Andorra conventional short form:
Government type:  parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains
as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president
of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally
by coprinces' representatives

Capital:  Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions:  7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia);
Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany,
Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence:  1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of France
and Spain)

National holiday:  Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)

Constitution:  Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991;
approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993

Legal system:  based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:  chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC
(since 17 May 1995), represented by Frederic de SAINT-SERNIN (since
NA); Spanish Coprince Episcopal Monseigneur Joan MARTI Alanis (since 31
January 1971), represented by Nemesi MARQUES OSTE (since NA) elections:
Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally
appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 4
March 2001 (next to be held NA 2005) election results: Marc FORNE Molne
elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote -
NA% cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive
Council president head of government: Executive Council President Marc
FORNE Molne (since 21 December 1994)

Legislative branch:  unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell
General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular
vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each
of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held
4 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2005) election results: percent
of vote by party - PLA 46.1%, PSD 30%, PD 23.8%, other 0.1%; seats by
party - PLA 15, PSD 6, PD 5, independents 2

Judicial branch:  Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of
the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or
Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or
Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal;
Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional

Political parties and leaders:  Democratic Party or PD (formerly part of
National Democratic Group or AND) [leader NA]; Liberal Party of Andorra
or PLA [Marc Forne MOLNE] (used to be Liberal Union or UL); National
Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vincenc MATEU Zamora]; New Democracy or ND
[Jaume BARTOMEU Cassany]; Social Democratic Party or PSD (formerly part
of National Democratic Group of AND) [leader NA]; Union of the People
of Ordino (Unio Parroquial d'Ordino) or UPO [Simo DURO Coma] note:
there are two other small parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:  NA

International organization participation:  CCC, CE, ECE, ICAO, ICRM,

Diplomatic representation in the US:  chief of mission: Ambassador
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jelena V.  PIA-COMELLA chancery: 2 United
Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017 FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064

Diplomatic representation from the US:  the US does not have an embassy
in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US
interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office
in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address:  280-2227; FAX: (3493) 205-7705

Flag description:  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow
band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags
of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the
center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

Economy Andorra

Economy - overview:  Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do
economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists
visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer
and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded
as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up,
providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking
sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to
the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land
is arable - and most food has to be imported.  The principal livestock
activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of
cigarettes, cigars, and furniture.  Andorra is a member of the EU Customs
Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods
(no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP:  purchasing power parity - $1.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:  3.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita:  purchasing power parity - $19,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line:  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  4.3% (2000)

Labor force:  33,000 (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:  agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 78%
(2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:  0%

Budget:  revenues: $385 million expenditures: $342 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1997)

Industries:  tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber,
tobacco, banking

Industrial production growth rate:  NA%

Electricity - production by source:  fossil fuel: NA% other: NA% nuclear:
NA% hydro: NA%

Electricity - consumption:  NA kWh

Electricity - exports:  NA kWh

Electricity - imports:  NA kWh note: most electricity supplied by Spain
and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower

Agriculture - products:  small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley,
oats, vegetables; sheep

Exports:  $58 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities:  tobacco products, furniture

Exports - partners:  France 34%, Spain 58% (1998)

Imports:  $1.077 billion (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities:  consumer goods, food, electricity

Imports - partners:  Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (1998)

Debt - external:  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:  none

Currency:  euro (EUR); French franc (FRF); Spanish peseta (ESP)

Currency code:  EUR; FRF; ESP

Exchange rates:  euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175
(2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar -
5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997); Spanish pesetas per US dollar - 149.40
(1998), 146.41 (1997)

Fiscal year:  calendar year

Communications Andorra

Telephones - main lines in use:  32,946 (December 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:  14,117 (December 1998)

Telephone system:  general assessment: NA domestic: modern system with
microwave radio relay connections between exchanges international:
landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations:  AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:  16,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:  0 (1997)

Televisions:  27,000 (1997)

Internet country code:  .ad

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):  1 (2000)

Internet users:  24,500 (2001)

Transportation Andorra

Railways:  0 km

Highways:  total: 269 km paved: 198 km unpaved: 71 km (1994 est.)

Waterways:  none

Ports and harbors:  none

Airports:  none (2001)

Military Andorra

Military branches:  no regular military forces, but there is a police

Military - note:  defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Transnational Issues Andorra

Disputes - international:  border is undemarcated in sections

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

Internet Links

Official Sites of Andorra
Principaute d' Andorra

Consell General Principat d'Andorra

Embassy of Andorra

Servei d'Estudis i estadística

Maps of Andorra

Political Map of Andorra

BOPA / Journal officiel de la Principauté

Diari d'Andorra

El Periodico

Arts & Culture
Biblioteca nacional

Festivals and Traditions

Business & Economy
Cambra de Comerç Indústria i Serveis

Guia Electrònica

Country Guides
Andorra Turisme

Andorra on line

Estudis Virtuals

Universitat d'Andorra

Andorra History

Arxiu Històric Nacional


General Resources

Altapedia Online: Andorra 



Andorra Online Library 


Consular Information Sbeet: Spain and Andorra -- Andorra 

Iberian Studies Web 

Lonely Planet World Guide: Destination Andorra 

Business, Commerce, Economy


BIBM: Banc Internacional d'Andorra - Banca Mora

Crèdit Andorrà

International Monetary Fund

STA: Servei de Telecomunicacions d'Andorra


ERIC Database 

Universitat d'Andorra

Government, Politics, Law









Ministeri de Salut i Benestar 

Consular Affairs: Information and Assistance for Canadians Abroad.





Libraries, Archives

Andorra Intern -- Andorra Online Library 

Arxiu Nacional d'Andorra 

Biblioteca nacional d'Andorra

Media and Communications


Diari d'Andorra digital 


Associacions: ONG

Recreation and Travel











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